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Palaeolithic Period•The earliest evidence of human habitationin Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.•Known as the Early Stone Age orPalaeolithic Period.•Stone tools were used for hunting and toprotect early humans beside tools madefrom bamboo and wood. Page 4
Palaeolithic Period•Did not have permanent homes but insteadthey lived in limestone caves as in Gua Niahor near rivers, like in Kota Tampan, Perak, orbesides lakes such as in Tingkayu, Sabah.•Lasted for almost 20,000 years.•From 15,000 to 12,000 years ago, humanculture began to show signs of change. Page 5
Mesolithic Period•The beginning of the Mesolithic Age wasabout 11,000 years ago.•Settlements in Malaysia have beendiscovered in 50 limestone cave areas inMalaysia like in Bukit Chuping (Perlis), GuaDebu (Kedah), Gua Kerbau (Perak), GuaCha and Gunung Musang (Kelantan), KotaTingkat, Gunung Senyum and Gua Kecil(Pahang) Page 6
Mesolithic Period•Lives in caves and also along rivers andlakes.•Started farming and used more refinedstone tools.•Able to make earthenware e.g. clay potsand pottery. Page 7
Neolithic Period•Began about 5, 000 years ago and alsoknown as new stone age.•Settlements in Malaysia were found in GuaCha, Gua Kecil, Guar Kepah, Jenderam Hilir,Gua Madai, Gua Tengkorak and Gua Niah.•Used more sophisticated stone tools andstarted creating objects and usingaccessories. Page 8
Neolithic Period•Started rearing livestock and startedcommunicating with communities in otherplaces.•Boats were made and some form of bartertrading were carried out. Page 9
Metal Period•Began about 2, 500 years agoand this age was named after thetools used which were made ofmetal like iron and bronze.•Settlements have been found inSungei Lang (Selangor) and inBatu Buruk (Terengganu) Page 10
Metal Period•Population grew and started developedresidential areas in wide open land nearrivers.•More orderly and sedentary lifestyle.•Started practiced social customs. Page 11
Early Kindgom(1st century -13th century)1. Funan (Southeast Vietnam).2. Old Kedah.3. Gangga Negara (Perak).4. Langkasuka (Patani).5. Chih Tu in Kelantan.6. Tan-Tan in Terengganu,7. Srivijaya.8. Mataram.9. Majapahit. Page 13
Early Kindgom•In the early centuries of the firstmillenium Malays became the dominantrace on the peninsula.•The people of the Malay Peninsulaadopted the Indian religions of Hinduismand Buddhism.•Trade relations with China andIndia were established in the 1stcentury. Page 14
Early Kindgom - Srivijaya•Between the 7th and the 13th century,much of the Malay peninsula was underthe buddhist Srivijaya empire.•For over six centuries the Maharajahsof Srivijaya ruled a maritime empire thatbecame the main power in thearchipelago.•The power of Srivijaya declined fromthe 12th century as the relationshipbetween the capital and its vassalsbroke down. Page 16
Early Kindgom - Majapahit•Wars with the Javanese caused it torequest assistance from China, and warswith Indian states are also suspected.•In the 11th century CE the centre of powershifted to Hindu Maharajahs was furtherundermined by the spread of Islam.•In the 14th century, the Hindu Java-based Majapahit empire came intopossession of the peninsula. Page 17
Assignment - Essay1. What factors influence Malacca to become the most well-known empire in the era of fifteen century?2. What are the internal and external factors that led to the fall of Malacca? Page 25
The future depends onwhat we do in the present. Mahatma Gandhi Page 26