Small Hydro Training Module

C
Cook Legacy College
Training Module M-200:
Fundamentals of Small
Hydro
Goals of This 15-Minute Module


Know what small hydro is.



Understand major features,
components, and selection criteria



Understand technical and financial
considerations when assessing a
site
Fundamentals of Small Hydro

SH 101:
Overview and
Background

SH 102:
Fundamentals

SH 103:
Review and
Quiz

3
What is Small Hydro
Small Hydro (also called small hydroelectric or small hydro) refers to the generation of
electrical power by using diverted water to rotate a turbine.
The major components include:
• An intake
• A penstock
• A turbine & generator
• A switchyard for connection to the power pole

4
What is Small Hydro
The most commonly used form in intake structure design is the “Discharge Equation.”
Different forms are used for flow over the spillway, Coanda accelerator, measurement
weirs, and various secondary spills.
Generally the value of C, the discharge coefficient, will adjust based on some empirical
test.
The basic discharge equation is Q=Clh^3/2
Where:
Q=Flow
C=Discharge coefficient
l=Length of the weir
h=head above the crest

The most important thing when selecting and implementing a discharge equation is
ensuring it matches in all respects the condition it was intended for.

5
Calculating Power Potential
Power is given as:
P=HQkG
Where:
P=Power in watts
H=Head (the difference in elevation between the intake and the powerhouse
Q=Flow in m^3/s
G=Gravity (9.8 m/s^2)
k=Turbine efficiency
A quick estimate is to take 7 * Q* H

Head (m)

Flow (m3/s)

Power in kW
6

7 x Head x Flow
What is Small Hydro
What counts as small hydro?

Typical Power
Micro
Mini

100 to 1,000 kW

Small

7

< 100 kW

1 to 50 MW
What is Small Hydro


Type of grid
– Central-grid: Generated power is sold back
to a power grid such as a utility.
– Isolated-grid or off-grid: Generated power is
used locally near the point of generation.



Type of civil works
– Run-of-river
• No water storage
• Power varies with flow available from river:
lower firm capacity

– Reservoir
• Higher firm capacity year-round
8

• Significant damming usually required
Process for Sizing Site

9
Process for Sizing Site
• Estimate flow duration curve based on


Measurements of flow over time



Size of drainage above site, specific run-off, and shape of flow
duration curve



The easiest way to mess up a high head site is to overestimate the
flow (as this is the only variable)
Flow-Duration Curve

Flow (m³/s)

50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percent Time Flow Equalled or Exceeded (% )

10
Process for Sizing Site
Picking the Turbine

at various points on the FDC

Flow-Duration Curve

40.0

• Estimate the cost of
equipment cost associated
with those. This includes
questions such as the size of
the equipment and how many
nozzles will be used.

• Integrate the area under the
curve with various scenarios
and pick the best payback.
Sometimes this can be
approximated by simply slicing
the FDC into a few scenarios.

11

Flow (m³/s)

• Estimate the installed capacity

50.0

30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percent Time Flow Equalled or Exceeded (% )

For example:
The green line has high
capacity to “catch” high flow
events, but may not run
enough to be worth the cost.
The blue line will be cheaper,
but may leave power on the
table. The red line may be the
best return.
Small Hydro Major Components
The most expensive cost component for a small hydro plant is the Civil Cost.
Much of our approach is in lowering the civil cap-ex.
Small Hydro Cost Estimate

Other
10%

Electrical
10%

Mechanical & Controls
25%

12

Civil Cost
55%
Small Hydro Major Components
The major components for the site are:
• Intake structure
• Penstock
• Powerhouse – the primary components of the powerhouse are:
o Turbine-generator
o Switchyard

13
Intake Structure
The intake structure needs to deliver clean water to the penstock
Traditional intakes include a coarse screen
with secondary screening and settling
basins to remove sand.
Coanda screens eliminate secondary
screening need & use overflowing water to
stay clean.

14
Turbine Types

15
Pelton Turbine Details
As Coanda Screens are most suitable for medium and high head sites they
are commonly paired with Pelton Machines
Peltons have a series of nozzles controlled by actuated needle valves, that
spray water onto the runners.

16
Turbine Types

17
Turbine Types

18
Low Head Hydro: Natel HydoEngine
In the low head space,
we offer
complementary
process equipment to
a range of turbine
designs.

19
Low Head Hydro: Cleanpower
Turbinator

20
Other Powerhouse Components
The generator is connected to the turbine.
A generator can be either synchronous (i.e. designed to work with an existing
load) or asynchronous.
For very small sites an induction motor can be used in place of the generator.
Additional components are the plant controls and basic facility requirements
like lighting, fire protection, personnel protection, and monitoring equipment.

21
Design Considerations
Technical

Financial
Plant

Environmental

22

Regulatory
Design Considerations
Intake Design

Turbine Selection

• Side intake
• Coanda

• Head
• Flow
• Fish

Technical
Penstock Design
• Distance
• Pressure

23

T&D Design
• Distance
• Connection Type
Design Considerations
Cap-Ex

Funding Sources

• Civil
• Mechanical
• Consultancy

• NGO
• Private Funding
• Equipment

Financial
Cost of Capital

Payback of
Components
• Cheap & swap
• Long term value

24
Design Considerations
Water

Grid Connection

Regulatory

Permitting Agency

25

Construction
Permits
Design Considerations
Social

Fisheries

• Build projects good for
people
• Don’t screw landowners.
Be fair.

• Improve diversion
• Improve survival

Environmental

Land Use
• Intake
• T&D

26

Proper O&M
Review Questions




27

What are the components of calculating
power capacity?
What are the balance of plant benefits of a
Coanda intake
1 de 27

Mais conteúdo relacionado

Mais procurados(20)

Fiberglass tank solutions   rev aFiberglass tank solutions   rev a
Fiberglass tank solutions rev a
fts144.9K visualizações
CompactsolutionforcsoCompactsolutionforcso
Compactsolutionforcso
Scott Henderson, PE ENV-SP290 visualizações
Produced Water | Session VI - Tyler AlgeoProduced Water | Session VI - Tyler Algeo
Produced Water | Session VI - Tyler Algeo
atlanticcouncil3.9K visualizações
Island Water Treatment Plant Capacity Increase StudyIsland Water Treatment Plant Capacity Increase Study
Island Water Treatment Plant Capacity Increase Study
Toronto Public Consultation Unit1.6K visualizações
Produced Water | Session III - John VeilProduced Water | Session III - John Veil
Produced Water | Session III - John Veil
atlanticcouncil3.3K visualizações
Oil Sands Water Management Initiative NotesOil Sands Water Management Initiative Notes
Oil Sands Water Management Initiative Notes
williampatricklaw2.9K visualizações
Produced Water | Session X - Steve JesterProduced Water | Session X - Steve Jester
Produced Water | Session X - Steve Jester
atlanticcouncil3.3K visualizações
Gersetenmaier.william lGersetenmaier.william l
Gersetenmaier.william l
NASAPMC14K visualizações
Aqua-Barrier Water Inflated Dams LiteratureAqua-Barrier Water Inflated Dams Literature
Aqua-Barrier Water Inflated Dams Literature
Darren Miller799 visualizações
Severn_Trent_Wanlip_Sludge_2014Severn_Trent_Wanlip_Sludge_2014
Severn_Trent_Wanlip_Sludge_2014
Iain McGregor159 visualizações
Island Water Treatment Plant Capacity Expansion - Project File ReportIsland Water Treatment Plant Capacity Expansion - Project File Report
Island Water Treatment Plant Capacity Expansion - Project File Report
Toronto Public Consultation Unit3.9K visualizações
O&GFaclities_Oct2013_SandManagementMethodologiesO&GFaclities_Oct2013_SandManagementMethodologies
O&GFaclities_Oct2013_SandManagementMethodologies
Hank Rawlins335 visualizações
Water shut off pptWater shut off ppt
Water shut off ppt
Adjei Sephen4.8K visualizações

Similar a Small Hydro Training Module

Introduction to power plantIntroduction to power plant
Introduction to power plantRahul Rathod
245 visualizações34 slides
Basics of  Hydro power plant Basics of  Hydro power plant
Basics of Hydro power plant Prasad Vejendla
67.7K visualizações63 slides
Hydro Electric Power PlantHydro Electric Power Plant
Hydro Electric Power PlantDolen Patel
2.6K visualizações25 slides
Hydro power plantHydro power plant
Hydro power plantNaveed Ahmed
721 visualizações24 slides

Similar a Small Hydro Training Module(20)

Introduction to power plantIntroduction to power plant
Introduction to power plant
Rahul Rathod245 visualizações
Basics of  Hydro power plant Basics of  Hydro power plant
Basics of Hydro power plant
Prasad Vejendla67.7K visualizações
Hydro Electric Power PlantHydro Electric Power Plant
Hydro Electric Power Plant
Dolen Patel2.6K visualizações
Archimedes Screw as a Low Head Hydropower GeneratorArchimedes Screw as a Low Head Hydropower Generator
Archimedes Screw as a Low Head Hydropower Generator
Christos Charisiadis9.2K visualizações
Hydro power plantHydro power plant
Hydro power plant
Naveed Ahmed721 visualizações
commutation failurecommutation failure
commutation failure
Shiva Kumar2.9K visualizações
Hydro electric power plant lectureHydro electric power plant lecture
Hydro electric power plant lecture
c3b2a148.8K visualizações
Presentation1.pptxPresentation1.pptx
Presentation1.pptx
magedahmed448 visualizações
New Wave Energy Services Ltd. Presentation 2016 USNew Wave Energy Services Ltd. Presentation 2016 US
New Wave Energy Services Ltd. Presentation 2016 US
Kristopher Vardell647 visualizações
Hydro power plantHydro power plant
Hydro power plant
Ripuranjan Singh2.6K visualizações
Water Lifts and PumpsWater Lifts and Pumps
Water Lifts and Pumps
Suyog Khose139 visualizações
Pump efficiencyPump efficiency
Pump efficiency
Ashwin Narayan417 visualizações
Hydel Generation and Types Of TurbinesHydel Generation and Types Of Turbines
Hydel Generation and Types Of Turbines
Taimoor Muzaffar Gondal604 visualizações
3: Energy Management In Water Supply Systems - Pumping Operations3: Energy Management In Water Supply Systems - Pumping Operations
3: Energy Management In Water Supply Systems - Pumping Operations
Alliance To Save Energy3.8K visualizações
Green mechatronics project pelton wheelGreen mechatronics project pelton wheel
Green mechatronics project pelton wheel
Digital Bridge Institute Abuja294 visualizações
eti_03_EngineTestingOverview.pdfeti_03_EngineTestingOverview.pdf
eti_03_EngineTestingOverview.pdf
AlemuAsefa18 visualizações
Malay nces pptMalay nces ppt
Malay nces ppt
9888437802388 visualizações

Último(20)

WEEK 1_ IT Network Engineering Class.pptxWEEK 1_ IT Network Engineering Class.pptx
WEEK 1_ IT Network Engineering Class.pptx
dclmict180 visualizações
AMD: 4th Generation EPYC CXL DemoAMD: 4th Generation EPYC CXL Demo
AMD: 4th Generation EPYC CXL Demo
CXL Forum113 visualizações
Business Analyst Series 2023 -  Week 2 Session 3Business Analyst Series 2023 -  Week 2 Session 3
Business Analyst Series 2023 - Week 2 Session 3
DianaGray10290 visualizações
MemVerge: Memory Viewer SoftwareMemVerge: Memory Viewer Software
MemVerge: Memory Viewer Software
CXL Forum106 visualizações
ChatGPT and AI for Web DevelopersChatGPT and AI for Web Developers
ChatGPT and AI for Web Developers
Maximiliano Firtman143 visualizações
Java 21 and Beyond- A Roadmap of Innovations  .pdfJava 21 and Beyond- A Roadmap of Innovations  .pdf
Java 21 and Beyond- A Roadmap of Innovations .pdf
Ana-Maria Mihalceanu49 visualizações
PyCon ID 2023 - Ridwan Fadjar Septian.pdfPyCon ID 2023 - Ridwan Fadjar Septian.pdf
PyCon ID 2023 - Ridwan Fadjar Septian.pdf
Ridwan Fadjar161 visualizações
Liqid: Composable CXL PreviewLiqid: Composable CXL Preview
Liqid: Composable CXL Preview
CXL Forum114 visualizações

Small Hydro Training Module

  • 1. Cook Legacy College Training Module M-200: Fundamentals of Small Hydro
  • 2. Goals of This 15-Minute Module  Know what small hydro is.  Understand major features, components, and selection criteria  Understand technical and financial considerations when assessing a site
  • 3. Fundamentals of Small Hydro SH 101: Overview and Background SH 102: Fundamentals SH 103: Review and Quiz 3
  • 4. What is Small Hydro Small Hydro (also called small hydroelectric or small hydro) refers to the generation of electrical power by using diverted water to rotate a turbine. The major components include: • An intake • A penstock • A turbine & generator • A switchyard for connection to the power pole 4
  • 5. What is Small Hydro The most commonly used form in intake structure design is the “Discharge Equation.” Different forms are used for flow over the spillway, Coanda accelerator, measurement weirs, and various secondary spills. Generally the value of C, the discharge coefficient, will adjust based on some empirical test. The basic discharge equation is Q=Clh^3/2 Where: Q=Flow C=Discharge coefficient l=Length of the weir h=head above the crest The most important thing when selecting and implementing a discharge equation is ensuring it matches in all respects the condition it was intended for. 5
  • 6. Calculating Power Potential Power is given as: P=HQkG Where: P=Power in watts H=Head (the difference in elevation between the intake and the powerhouse Q=Flow in m^3/s G=Gravity (9.8 m/s^2) k=Turbine efficiency A quick estimate is to take 7 * Q* H Head (m) Flow (m3/s) Power in kW 6 7 x Head x Flow
  • 7. What is Small Hydro What counts as small hydro? Typical Power Micro Mini 100 to 1,000 kW Small 7 < 100 kW 1 to 50 MW
  • 8. What is Small Hydro  Type of grid – Central-grid: Generated power is sold back to a power grid such as a utility. – Isolated-grid or off-grid: Generated power is used locally near the point of generation.  Type of civil works – Run-of-river • No water storage • Power varies with flow available from river: lower firm capacity – Reservoir • Higher firm capacity year-round 8 • Significant damming usually required
  • 10. Process for Sizing Site • Estimate flow duration curve based on  Measurements of flow over time  Size of drainage above site, specific run-off, and shape of flow duration curve  The easiest way to mess up a high head site is to overestimate the flow (as this is the only variable) Flow-Duration Curve Flow (m³/s) 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Time Flow Equalled or Exceeded (% ) 10
  • 11. Process for Sizing Site Picking the Turbine at various points on the FDC Flow-Duration Curve 40.0 • Estimate the cost of equipment cost associated with those. This includes questions such as the size of the equipment and how many nozzles will be used. • Integrate the area under the curve with various scenarios and pick the best payback. Sometimes this can be approximated by simply slicing the FDC into a few scenarios. 11 Flow (m³/s) • Estimate the installed capacity 50.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Time Flow Equalled or Exceeded (% ) For example: The green line has high capacity to “catch” high flow events, but may not run enough to be worth the cost. The blue line will be cheaper, but may leave power on the table. The red line may be the best return.
  • 12. Small Hydro Major Components The most expensive cost component for a small hydro plant is the Civil Cost. Much of our approach is in lowering the civil cap-ex. Small Hydro Cost Estimate Other 10% Electrical 10% Mechanical & Controls 25% 12 Civil Cost 55%
  • 13. Small Hydro Major Components The major components for the site are: • Intake structure • Penstock • Powerhouse – the primary components of the powerhouse are: o Turbine-generator o Switchyard 13
  • 14. Intake Structure The intake structure needs to deliver clean water to the penstock Traditional intakes include a coarse screen with secondary screening and settling basins to remove sand. Coanda screens eliminate secondary screening need & use overflowing water to stay clean. 14
  • 16. Pelton Turbine Details As Coanda Screens are most suitable for medium and high head sites they are commonly paired with Pelton Machines Peltons have a series of nozzles controlled by actuated needle valves, that spray water onto the runners. 16
  • 19. Low Head Hydro: Natel HydoEngine In the low head space, we offer complementary process equipment to a range of turbine designs. 19
  • 20. Low Head Hydro: Cleanpower Turbinator 20
  • 21. Other Powerhouse Components The generator is connected to the turbine. A generator can be either synchronous (i.e. designed to work with an existing load) or asynchronous. For very small sites an induction motor can be used in place of the generator. Additional components are the plant controls and basic facility requirements like lighting, fire protection, personnel protection, and monitoring equipment. 21
  • 23. Design Considerations Intake Design Turbine Selection • Side intake • Coanda • Head • Flow • Fish Technical Penstock Design • Distance • Pressure 23 T&D Design • Distance • Connection Type
  • 24. Design Considerations Cap-Ex Funding Sources • Civil • Mechanical • Consultancy • NGO • Private Funding • Equipment Financial Cost of Capital Payback of Components • Cheap & swap • Long term value 24
  • 26. Design Considerations Social Fisheries • Build projects good for people • Don’t screw landowners. Be fair. • Improve diversion • Improve survival Environmental Land Use • Intake • T&D 26 Proper O&M
  • 27. Review Questions   27 What are the components of calculating power capacity? What are the balance of plant benefits of a Coanda intake