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American Psychological Association (APA) has a newly revised and adopted set of standards. One of the elements of principle two states: “Faculty understand and apply a variety of learning principles and modes of learning such as spaced practice, generation of responses, active engagement by students, group exercises and explaining as a way of understanding, among others.”
Knowing their ZPD is likely below my expectations for a good response post, I know I must work really hard in the first few weeks. Feedback, Modeling and Praise are the tools I use to expand their knowledge and therefore their ZPD.
“Essential Element 15:Facilitate discussions in a way that keeps students on-task, promotes full participation, and encourages peer collaboration” (p 81). Elbaum, McIntyre & Smith.
Cindy Hinds Building Discussion Quality with "Virtual Gold Stars"
Cindy Hinds Adjunct Psychology InstructorOzarks Technical Community College
I have a _____ with Standards requiring me to teach higher level critical thinking skills to students. ◦ A) Department/Division ◦ B) College/University ◦ C) Professional association ◦ D) More than one of the above
I have students who: ◦ A) already know how to think and write critically. ◦ B) are somewhat prepared to engage in critical thinking work. ◦ C) are not prepared to engage in critical thinking work, but show some promise. ◦ D) are not prepared and show no foundation to begin the process of critical thinking. ◦ E) All of the above
Knowledge is constructed through interactions with adults or more advanced peers. Scaffolding Learners do best when information is provided within their „zone of proximal development‟ through a process called
Early in the Semester weekly Later in the Semester weekly ResponseResponse Posts can be worth up to Posts can be worth up to 105 possible points. possible points.
I like to receive recognition for hard work. ◦ A) True ◦ B) False The result of the recognition you receive for your hard work makes you: ◦ A) work a little less ◦ B) coast along ◦ C) work a little more ◦ D) work much harder
What student reactions have you had to the movement away from traditional forms of teaching and learning?
Do you think this methodology goes far enough in creating collaboration? ◦ A) Yes ◦ B) No
Creates a better discussion board response post. Keeps students “on task” Requires students to critically think about the material Creates a nascent community of learners
APA, Principles for Quality Undergraduate Education in Psychology. www.apa.org Borthick, A.F., Jones, D.R., & Wakai, S. (2003). Designing Learning Experiences within Learners‟ Zones of Proximal Development (ZPDs): Enabling Collaborative Learning On-Site and Online. Journal of Information Systems. 17 (1): 107-134. Elbaum, B., McIntyre, C., & Smith, A (2002) Essential Elements. Atwood Publishing: Madison, WI Reed, S. (2010). A Model for Scaffolding Writing Instruction: IMSCI. The Reading Teacher. 64 (1) 47-52. Tsai, A. (2011). A Hybrid E-Learning Model Incorporating Some of the Principal Learning Theories. Social Behavior and Personality 39 (2) 145-152. Van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010) Scaffolding in Teacher-Student Interaction: A Decade of Research. Educational Psychology Review. 22: 271-296.