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More Little Wonders of C#/.NET
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C#/.NET Little Wonders

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We've all seen the big "macro" features in .NET, this presentation is to give praise to the "Little Wonders" of .NET -- those little items in the framework that make life as a developer that much easier!

C#/.NET Little Wonders

  1. 1. James Michael Hare 2012 Visual C# MVP Application Architect Scottrade August 3rd, 2012http://www.BlackRabbitCoder.netTwitter: @BlkRabbitCoder
  2. 2. Me: Blog: http://www.BlackRabbitCoder.net Twitter: @BlkRabbitCoderInformation on Scottrade Careers: http://jobs.scottrade.com Twitter: @scottradejobs
  3. 3. What are “Little Wonders”?The .NET Framework is full of “macro-sized” goodness that can help make our coding lives easier by automating common tasks.But, the .NET Framework also has a lot of smaller “micro-sized” tips and tricks that can improve code.Many developers know of most of these, but it is often surprising how many times newer developers don’t.These are just a few of those items, there are many more.
  4. 4. How do they help?Basically, by employing these small items at the right time, you can increase application: Readability – some of the wonders make code much more concise and easy to read. Maintainability – often goes hand and hand with readability, by removing ambiguity of the code, it is easier to maintain without introducing errors. Performance – a few of the little wonders can even help increase the performance of your code (depending on usage).
  5. 5. The Little WondersSyntactical Sugar Stopwatch  Implicit Typing  BCL Class for Timing  Auto-Properties TimeSpan  using Blocks  static Factory Methods  static Class Modifier OperatorsCasts  Conditional  as (TryCast)  Null-CoalescingString Initializers  Case-Insensitive Equals()  Object Initializers  static IsNullOrEmpty()  Collection Initializers  static Extension Methods IsNullOrWhitespace()  Defining Custom ExtensionsObject:  LINQ Extension Methods  static Equals()Path  BCL Class for Path Handling
  6. 6. Implicit typingSo many times declarations and instantiations are redundant: C#: VB:Since declared type is same as instantiated type, can use implicit typing: C#: VB:Generally speaking, more readable since less redundant typing.
  7. 7. Auto-Implemented PropertiesMost properties simply get/set a backing field:
  8. 8. Auto-Implemented PropertiesManually creating these can make code more bloated.Auto-Implemented properties take the pain out of declaring simple properties: Automatically creates a private, hidden backing field. Automatically creates a getter that returns field. Automatically creates a setter that assigns field. VB allows you to assign auto-property inline. C# allows you to have different accessibility for set and get (i.e. you can create read-only properties).
  9. 9. Auto-Implemented PropertiesC#:
  10. 10. Auto-Implemented PropertiesVB:
  11. 11. Using using BlocksWhen using an IDisposable instance, be careful how you clean up:What happens if exception is thrown before one or all are disposed?
  12. 12. Using using BlocksFully protecting gets ugly fast…
  13. 13. Using using BlockSafer -- handles Dipose() even if exception.Can stack multiple using declarations in C#.Looks cleaner than multi-indenting. C#:
  14. 14. Using using BlockVB doesn’t look quite as clean when “stacked”, but still cleaner than the try/finally. VB:
  15. 15. Static Class ModifierSome utility classes contain only static methods:
  16. 16. Static Class ModifierClasses with only static (Shared) methods and properties shouldn’t be instantiated or inherited.Could mark class sealed (NotInheritable) and create private constructor:
  17. 17. Static Class ModifierInstead, mark class static and will prevent inheritance, instantiation, and instance members. C#: VB doesn’t have static modifier for classes:  Modules are the VB.NET equivalent.
  18. 18. The as Cast (TryCast)If you use is check followed by a cast, you are checking twice…  C#:  VB:The as cast (TryCast in VB) lets you do a conditional cast if type is convertible, or null if not.
  19. 19. The as Cast (TryCast)C#:VB:
  20. 20. Case-Insensitive String EqualsSometimes you will see someone attempting to check case-insensitive string equality by using ToUppper(): C#: VB:This creates a temp string that needs to be garbage collected later.
  21. 21. Case-Insensitive String EqualsInstead of converting ToUpper(), use optional argument for case-insensitivity: C#: VB:Can also be applied to static String.Equals().
  22. 22. String CompareReturns integer result of whether the first argument is less, equal, or greater than the second argument.Has optional parameter for case-insensitive.
  23. 23. Static String Empty ChecksOften time in code you will see something like: C#: VB:Compound expressions are harder to read.Can lead to buggy code if incorrectly coded or inverted.If string has whitespace, what then?
  24. 24. Static String Empty ChecksThe System.String class has some static methods for checking for null, empty, or whitespace only strings: IsNullOrEmpty() – returns true if reference is null or contains a completely empty string (zero Length). IsNullOrWhiteSpace() – returns true if reference is null, zero Length, or if all characters in string are whitespace.These static methods make the intent of the code cleaner and eliminate need for compound expression.Inverting the condition is also much more obvious.
  25. 25. Static String Empty ChecksC#:VB:
  26. 26. Static Object Equals CheckWhat happens in the following if the LHS is null? C#: VB:Equals() instance method can handle null RHS, but not LHS.
  27. 27. Static Object Equals CheckYou could check for null of LHS first, but gets ugly.Use static (Shared) Equals() method instead: C#: VB:Safer than using operator == for most types since == relies on an operator overload to exist.
  28. 28. The Path ClassPath has helper methods for parsing/combining paths.
  29. 29. The Stopwatch ClassBCL class in System.Diagnostics.Allows for much more precise timing than comparing DateTime instances.Contains basic methods for controlling Stopwatch: Start() – marks starting time to now. Stop() – marks ending time to now. Reset() – resets start and end times.Contains properties to query duration including: ElapsedMilliseconds – long for milliseconds elapsed. Elapsed – precicse elapsed time as a TimeSpan.
  30. 30. The Stopwatch ClassC#:VB:
  31. 31. TimeSpan Factory MethodsHow many times have you seen code like this and wondered what the TimeSpan represents? C#: VB:The constructors for TimeSpan are a bit ambiguous.
  32. 32. TimeSpan Factory MethodsTimeSpan has a series of static factory methods: TimeSpan.FromDays(double days) TimeSpan.FromHours(double hours) TimeSpan.FromMinutes(double minutes) TimeSpan.FromSeconds(double seconds) TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(double millis)These methods can be used to create TimeSpans of varying durations in a way that promotes better readability.
  33. 33. TimeSpan Factory MethodsC#:VB:
  34. 34. The Conditional OperatorEssentially a mini if-then-else operator.Best used for small decisions that lead to a value assignment or return.If used simply, can make code more concise. C#: <bool-expression> ? <if-true> : <if-false> VB: If(<bool-expression>, <if-true>, <if-false>)
  35. 35. The Conditional OperatorC#:VB:
  36. 36. The Null-Coalescing OperatorAllows concise substitution for null (Nothing) references.  C#: <reference> ?? <null-substitute>  VB: If(<reference>, <null-substitute>)Equivalent to conditional operator checking for null/Nothing:  C#: value ?? substitue value != null ? value : substitute  VB: If(value, substitue) If(value IsNot Nothing, value, substitue)
  37. 37. The Null-Coalescing OperatorC#VB:
  38. 38. Object InitializersMany times, we create an object and then immediately set a series of properties:Lot of repetitive code especially if names are long:
  39. 39. Object InitializersOf course, you could make it easier by providing constructors, but you lose some readability:Also, would need several constructor overloads or acceptable default parameters.Object initializers come in handy because they can be used to initialize any public property or field.Improves readability since tagged with property name.
  40. 40. Object InitializersC#:VB:
  41. 41. Collection InitializersSimilarly, creating collections can be repetitive:Especially if the type contained is non-trivial:
  42. 42. Collection InitializersCan use collection initializer syntax to add multiple items at time of collection construction: C#: VB:
  43. 43. Collection InitializersEven works well in conjunction with object initializers for initializing collections of complex objects: C#: VB:
  44. 44. Collection InitializersWhat is the difference between these?
  45. 45. Collection InitializersInitializers preserve beforefieldinit modifier in the IL:Gives small performance bump - without beforefieldinit the CLR must check the class to see if static constructor called before accessing any static member.
  46. 46. Extension MethodsIf you develop a good piece of generic functionality and want to attach it to an existing (sealed) type or interface, you can create an Extension MethodTreated just like a true instance method, except can be called off null (Nothing) reference, although this is not recommended.In C#, create a static class and static method with this keyword marking the first argument.In VB, create a Module and mark with <Extension()> attribute.
  47. 47. Extension MethodsC#:
  48. 48. Extension MethodsVB:
  49. 49. Extension MethodsCan call just like regular instance methods:Can be useful for adding behavior generically or to interfaces.Used to give most of the LINQ functionality to IEnumerable.Overuse can cause confusion and pollute IntelliSense.
  50. 50. LINQToo many times developers re-invent the wheel.Say you have a list of Product such as:
  51. 51. LINQIf you wanted all products with value > 100 grouped by category, you could do something like…
  52. 52. LINQOr use the LINQ extensions methods:Or LINQ expression syntax:Either way, the algorithms are already written and unit tested and ready to use.Don’t reinvent the wheel.
  53. 53. Questions?
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We've all seen the big "macro" features in .NET, this presentation is to give praise to the "Little Wonders" of .NET -- those little items in the framework that make life as a developer that much easier!


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