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Ellis (1985) described learning style as it helps a
person in a consistent way to become conscious of
information needed, how to clarify and develop concepts
organize and recall information at the time of need.
What is Learning Style?
• Learning style is basically how do learner gather information, skill
to explain it, information which is not applicable to separate it,
organize the matter and combine the information, they store
information to use it in future as per the need.
• Each of us have different learning style and how accordingly we
organize our matter is what learning style describes about.
• This learning style come from the learners their specific
characteristic, their learning experiences, their culture and the
society they live in.
V A R K
Theory of Neil Fleming's VARK model
• Learners who prefer visual learning style they learn best by
• They prefer to see the information presented in visual rather
than in written form.
• Graphic displays like charts, diagrams, illustration, handouts
and videos are all helpful learning tools for visual learners.
• They visualize what they are doing or what they want to do.
• Learns best in interactive formats: Role play, modeling, groups
• Easily gets distracts when there are no visual aids while
Use multiple visual formats: chart presentation software,
video, notes, worksheets, flip charts, diagrams etc.
Write goals? Objectives of lessons on board.
Open-ended creative questions encouraging multiple
interpretation and solutions.
Leave white space in handouts for note taking .
Invite questions to help them stay alert.
Emphasize key points to cue when to take notes.
Mind mapping can be indulge to visual learning style children.
Learners learn best when information are spoken.
They do not need careful notes to learn, avoids eye contact
They read aloud when they are learning or they keep
music on in background when they study.
This type of learners are good at remembering things they
Lecturers, group discussion, radio, email, speaking are the
best way for auditory learners to learn.
Traditional lecture, independent work.
Group discussion: feedback, paraphrasing from peers.
Individual conference/ interviews with instructor.
Allow “thinking time” to process information.
Try to do brainstorming.
Tasks calling for specific answers/ solutions.
Phrasing information several different ways.
Begin new material with “ what is coming” conclude with
“what was covered”.
Give time to debrief in order to make connection.
Reading and writing learners prefer to take in information
displayed as words.
Learning materials that are primarily text based are strongly
This type of learner prefer to say the words/sentences and write
it as well to learn.
Essay, PowerPoint making, reports, manual they are good at it.
They are good at writing down notes during lectures.
They prefer area which is quiet to learn and study themselves to
Make chart of a chapter where everything is in written
form and less of diagrams and charts.
When you make notes for this type learner make sure you
make the sentence into bullet points.
Give a handout of what you have teach in class after a
class to have a revision.
Tell them to mark the key words in their notes so that they
recollect things easily.
This type of learner prefers touch as their primarily mode for
taking in information, they are connected to reality.
This learners need more and more practical work.
They need opportunities for creativity, hands on learning,
interaction with concrete materials.
Learning is best accommodated through movements.
This type of learners doesn’t like to seat at one place and learn
they want to try things to get its knowledge.
They learn from lot of projects, new concrete personal
They believe in doing things and learning, it also includes case
study and application based learning.
Experiential learning activities: labs, modules, educational
Simulation( interact with/apply concepts)
Interaction via technology: audio, video, computers.
Demonstrations/ role play/ case studies.
Internships, different field trips can be organized, more of
practical should be included.
Give frequent stretch breaks( brain breaks).
Have students transfer information from the text to another
medium such as a keyboard.
Kolb’s (1984) experiential learning theory consists of a four stage learning cycle
where a learner will encounter all four stages of the cycle in varying degrees:
and acting. Learning is the process where by it is created through the
transformation of experience(1984).
Kolb, A.Y., & Kolb, D.A. (2005). The Kolb Learning Style Inventory – Version 3.1: 2005 Technical Specifications. Haygroup:
Experience Based Learning Systems Inc.
David A. Kolb’s theory
Honey and Mumford's
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford adapted Kolb's learning
styles to develop their own model of learning styles.
Honey and Mumford's model assumes that people have
preferred learning styles but that these are dependent on
context and experience, so are not locked into any one
These are assumed to be acquired preferences that are
adaptable, either at will or through changed
circumstances, rather than being fixed personality
Doing and experiencing.
Games, practical activities,
anything that is energetic and
Sitting around for too
long; working alone;
theorising; having to
listen to others.
Time to think, observe, take it
all in; watching others;
solitude and time.
Being hurtled into
activity, no time to
timetables; lack of
privacy, no time to
To know where something fits
into overall ideas and
concepts; analysis and logic;
being stretched; abstract
concepts; structure, clarity.
wasting time; not
being able to
question; lack of a
Planning the next
Practical problem solving;
relevance to the real world;
learning that focuses
too much on past or
future and not
Flexible and open-
Happy to "have a go“.
Enjoys new situations.
Optimistic about anything
therefore unlikely to resist
Tendency to take the immediately
obvious course of action without
weighing up other possibilities.
Tendency to do too much
Tendency to have public
Often take unnecessary risks.
Goes into action without
Gets bored with implementation
Good at listening and
Rarely jump to
Tendency to hold back from
Slow to make up their minds
and reach a decision.
Tendency to be too cautious
and not take enough risks.
Not usually assertive.
Rational and objective.
Good at asking probing
Restricted in lateral
Low tolerance for
uncertainty, disorder or
Intolerant of anything
subjective or intuitive.
Full of "should", "oughts"
Keen to test things out in
Practical and realistic.
Down to earth and
business-like; gets straight
to the point.
Tendency to reject anything
without an obvious
Not very interested in
theory or basic principles.
Tendency to seize on the
first expedient solution to a
Impatient with "waffle”.
Task-oriented rather than
The student-teacher relationship can improve because the student is more
successful and is more interested in learning.
Students who have become bored with learning may become interested once
As learning improves, so too does self esteem. This has a further positive effect on
Students learn better and more quickly if the teaching methods used match their
preferred learning styles.
Mark K. Smith says that , “ Kolb’s model doesn't adequately
address the process of reflection; the claims it makes about the
four learning styles are extravagant; it doesn't sufficiently
address the fact of different cultural conditions and experiences;
the idea of stages/steps doesn't necessarily match reality; the
relationship between learning processes and knowledge is more
complex than Kolb draws it.
According to Stahl, there has been an "utter failure to find that
assessing children's learning styles and matching to
instructional methods has many effect on their learning."
learning styles such as VARK are helpful, particularly as they
can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict