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Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite

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On 2018 the BRT+ CoE hosted the Workshop Innovation in Africa, on Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These are the slides of the main sessions of the event.

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Workshop Innovation in Africa - Manifesto for BRT Lite

  1. 1. Bus Rapid Transit for Africa Manifesto for BRT Lite Ian Barrett Integrated Transport Planning 1
  2. 2. Content of Presentation • What do we mean by BRT Lite? • What are its principal objectives? • How do we attain those objectives? • How does this differ from BRT Classic? • What is the economic and financial outturn? • What are the critical success factors? • Worked example 2
  3. 3. Overview of BRT Lite • Use of the bus mode for the carriage of large volumes of passengers at higher speed - BRT • Focused on customer needs and economic benefits, rather than just on infrastructure • Prepared to accept performance compromises to attain these consumer objectives • Planned for an urban corridor/catchment and defined by its service plan as the foundation • Sensitive to the local development context 3
  4. 4. Customer needs • Focus on whole-of-journey, not just trunk • Reliability and predictability, not just speed • Maximise area of direct-service outreach • Minimise transfers for speed and convenience • Integrated tariffs and ticketing for transfers • Easy boarding and alighting from the bus • Maximum bus seats and no over-crowding • Safety and security on buses and in stops 4
  5. 5. Economic and financial benefits For society: • Return on investment recognising opportunity cost and scarcity of development capital • No additional requirement for operating subsidy • Minimal reduction in general traffic capacity, and acceptable constraints at junctions For the passenger and operator: • Fares no higher than previous paratransit • Reasonable return on capital invested in fleet 5
  6. 6. Service plan • Direct tributary and CBD distributor services, wherever economical to provide by large bus • Mixture of stage-carriage, limited-stop and express services to minimise total dwell time • Based on measured demand in the peak hour, and in the inter- and off-peak periods • Update based on analysis of ticket validations • Peak-spreading through reductions in off-peak fares and retained service quality 6
  7. 7. Service integration • Integration through fares and ticketing system • Direct service provision wherever justified • Planned interchange where this not practical • Facilities to minimise personal cost of transfer • No fares penalty for transfer, and retained benefit of any fares taper on longer trips • Modalities for fare allocation between service providers on linked trips 7
  8. 8. Service contracting • At route (or route group), not corridor level – size of business units compatible with sector experience and management capacity; retains competition potential; minimises system risk • Net-cost, not gross-cost, contracting – aligns operator and manager incentives; minimises revenue risk to authority; clear public service obligations, and their associated costs 8
  9. 9. Fares • Integrated fares throughout corridor and eventually across network • Balance of benefits to operator and passenger, so distance-related component • Simple zonal fare structure – ca. 5km bands • No fares penalty on transfer • Off-peak fare reductions for discretionary travel, using marginal cost pricing 9
  10. 10. Ticketing • Account-based automatic fare collection (AFC) with cloud-based back-office administration • Mobile ticketing as base modality, with printed 2D bar-code tickets for casual use • Standardised validation modality, with GPS location, and 4G communication capability • Validation at boarding and alighting (transfer), and for driver control of overloading • On-bus validators, or smart-phones for MBTs 10
  11. 11. Intelligent transport systems • Based on location / communications of AFC • Automatic vehicle location and monitoring • Real-time passenger information – mobile app and at multi-route stations • Holding in real time for operational control • Control centre for BRT system manager • Data feed to route operators and despatch 11
  12. 12. Bus / platform interface (1) Near-side boarding: • Only practicable option for tributary services; most boarding / alighting outside of trunk • Retains value in previous bus investments, and minimises life-cycle cost through cascade • Provides comfort to potential bus investors • Enables progressive roll-out with infrastructure • Enables station lay-bys for easy insertion in RoW 12
  13. 13. Bus / platform interface (2) Stepped entry: • Compatible with tributary infrastructure • Platform over-sweep at docking for minimum bay length in multi-bay stations, and enables broad-echelon bay stacking if width available • Step slope can be set for mobility impaired, and so not act as a system entry barrier • No significant impact on station dwell time 13
  14. 14. Bus / platform interface (3) Platform height and design: • Standard kerb height – 150mm to 200mm • Kassel kerb for passive bus guidance, so as to minimise kerb to bus separation • Concrete road surface for retained height only in high wear / distortion area of station • Block pavior construction for speed of repair when required 14
  15. 15. Bus specification • Maximum length rigid bus permitted • Maximum seating capacity in Class I or II use • Floor height 650mm for E+1 stepped entry – suitable for poor roads; allows front engine; seats on wheel-boxes; wheel-chair access • Articulated buses not suitable for poor roads; don’t add capacity at multi-bay stations; only economic in peak operation; depot problems 15
  16. 16. Station specification • Terminals only at outer end of routes • Off-line lay-by, or passing lane for all routes with more than one service or service type • Extended lay-by off-line for bunched buses • Station access by at-grade signalised crossing • Open station (ticket validation on boarding) • Kerbside transfers, with pedestrian provision • Adjacent bicycle storage, where required 16
  17. 17. Station location • Positioned to reflect demand, not just spacing • Kerbside in a highway with service lanes • Kerbside in a road with low side friction • Median only if traffic must have kerbside access • Asymmetric location to facilitate insertion • Location close to cross-streets for transfers • Use road width of turning lanes at junctions where available 17
  18. 18. Running way location • Within existing highway right-of-way • Exclusive lanes, segregated but not discrete • Reallocation of existing road space if possible • Separated in couplets if needed for insertion • Tidal flow option where appropriate • Kerbside unless traffic access is essential • Median construction to be avoided if possible because of utilities and drainage relocation 18
  19. 19. Running way specification • Geometry suited to urban operating speeds • Lane width 3.5m maximum, 3.25m ideal • Low-height lane separators; emergency crossable • Passive barriers to light-vehicle intrusion • Passing lanes at all stations with multi service • Not concretised, as axle loading is controlled, but overlay of existing highway for durability • Assured drainage, for operation and durability 19
  20. 20. Junctions • BRT Lite operating in mixed traffic at signalised junctions and roundabouts • Design emphasis to reduce number of phases through restricting certain movements and providing alternative routeings – jug-handle • Signalised roundabout for high volume turns with tidal flow capability • Square-about has low queuing capacity and no tidality; not suited to median BRT 20
  21. 21. Non-motorised transport • NMT access paths to / from BRT stations • No cycle provision along line of route • NMT crossings of BRT wherever high demand – signalised at grade, or underpass if possible • Specific pedestrian provision for transfers • Sidewalks protected from encroachment by parking, motorbikes, handcarts or hawkers 21
  22. 22. Variances from BRT Classic • Avoidance of ‘big bang’ launch and costs • Migration potential for existing operators • Phased implementation, by route not corridor • Trip integration by ticketing not infrastructure • Nearside stepped boarding to standard buses • Asymmetric running ways and stations in CBD • Avoidance of median construction, if possible • No integrated NMT alignment along trunk 22
  23. 23. Planning parameters • Bus capacity dependent on local regulations and efficiency in design – typically ca. 100 • >1,000 pphpd for large-bus operation • >6,000 pphpd for exclusive use of traffic lane • 85 per cent planned peak load factor • 3 to 6 minute peak-service headways • 5 to 10 minute off-peak headways 23
  24. 24. Investment returns Re-investible benefits: • Vehicle operating cost savings per passenger kilometre – but lower scheduled load factor Non re-investible benefits: • Passenger time savings – but real valuation • Reduction in vehicle exhaust emissions Disbenefits • Traffic disruption during / after construction 24
  25. 25. Errors in economic analysis • Optimism bias: sensitivity test at 40% uplift • Strategic bias: test against best alternative • Under-estimate cost / delay of contested land • High value of time: use displayed, or equity • Expansion from peak hour: use all-day data • External impacts: during / after construction • Low hurdle rate: opportunity cost of capital • Long assessment: increasing uncertainty 25
  26. 26. Financial viability • Should be financially viable over the vehicle life cycle at current paratransit fares – greater productivity and economies of scale – but load factors will be lower in scheduled service • May be cash negative during fleet acquisition, depending on financing terms and duties on imported buses where required • Fleet assembly, driver training, and other launch costs cannot be recovered from service operation – initial investment support may be required 26
  27. 27. Critical economic success factors • Minimum transfer need within service plan • High travel demand, both peak and off-peak • Bad traffic congestion, both peak and off-peak • Insertion from reallocation of existing road space, and construction within right of way • Low infrastructure investment cost, and little disruption during and after construction • Minimal land acquisition requirement in CBD 27
  28. 28. Critical financial success factors • Rational fare structure and tariff levels • Mechanisms to adjust tariffs for input costs • Low price of buses meeting functional needs • Low lease interest rate / long tenor for fleet acquisition • Low duties and taxation for imported buses and other necessities • Return on capital attractive to investors 28
  29. 29. Worked example - Nairobi BRT Classic • NPB $0.26bn • NPC $0.88bn • NPV -$0.62bn • BCR 0.29 • IRR 3.9% BRT Lite • NPB $0.38bn • NPC $0.21bn • NPV $0.17bn • BCR 1.79 • IRR 20.5% 29