2. Memory is the encoding, storage, retrieval of
what was learned earlier (Morgan& king)
DEFINITION OF MEMORY
3. A THEORY OF GENERAL MEMORY FUNCTIONS
4. According to this theory, Three distinct processes of memory have been
identified. These are an encoding process, a storage process, and a
Encoding is the process of receiving, sensory input and transforming it
into a form, or code, which can be stored;
storage is the process of process actually putting coded information
retrieval is the process of gaining access to stored, coded information
when it is needed.
A THEORY OF GENERAL MEMORY
7. SENSORY MEMORY
Registered for each of
Fades within few seconds.
Facilitate rapid processing
of incoming stimuli.
Selective attention allows for the sifting of relevant material from
sensory memory for further processing and storage in short-term
8. SHORT TERM/WORKING
Allow for the Storage of memories for much longer than few seconds available to sensory memory.
Aids constant updating of one’s surroundings.
Sensitive to disorders of brain tissue- such as AD
Ex: If you saw a person walking a dog and few seconds later heard a dog bark you would not be
surprised since you would identify the likely source of the sound from sensory(visual) memory that
had been processed and encoded in short term memory.
10. EXPLICIT / DECLARATIVE /
Deals with facts and events, available to conscious for declaration.
Common examples: 5-minute recalls, asking the patient what they
had for breakfast.
1.Semantic memory/ memory for abstract facts: What is
the capital of India?
2.Episodic memory/ memory for specific events: What did
you have for breakfast?
Person is conscious of what they are remembering.
Stored in Hippocampus.
11. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY
General recall of event.
An interpretation of event.
Recall of few specific details.
A type of episodic memory.
Associated with the active experience
Memories of events and issues that
relate to oneself.
(Married? Wedding day?).
13. When memories have been rehearsed in short term memory
, they are encoded into long term memory
Storage of material in long term memory allows for recall of
events from past and for the utilisation of information learnt
through the education ststem
It is resilient to attack. Hippocampus is particulary imortant
in transfer of memory from short term to long term
LONG TERM MEMORY
14. Long-term memory
Explicit: (declarative)-Person is
conscious that they are
Non declarative (procedural): There is
no active awareness that memory is being
searched in undertaking the particular skill
17. • Normal memory decay.
• interference from related material
• Proactive interference (old-new).
• Retroactive interference (new-old).
Partial or total inability to recall past
experiences and events.
May be Organic or psychogenic
19. PSYCHOGENIC AMNESIAS
• Sudden amnesia during periods of extreme trauma.
Amnesia for personal identity.(Name, address, history,)and
person behaves appropriately to their background and
• May be associated with fugue.
• Common in those with h/o head injury in the past.
• Ability to perform complex behaviours is maintained.
1. Dissociative/ hysterical amnesia:
• Inability to recall specific painful memories.
• Due to defense mechanism of repression.
• More persistent and circumscribed.
• Trigger/ psychotherapeutic intervention makes memory
available to consciousness.
• Lasts for many years.
• There is no loss of personal identity
2. Katathymic amnesia/ motivated forgetting:
21. ORGANIC AMNESIAS
• Memory is poor owing to disorders of perception and attention.
• There is failure to encode material in long term memory.
• Acute head injury there is amnesia –retrograde amnesia , which
embraces the events just before the injury
anterograde amnesia is amnesia occuring after the injury
• Black outs- Anterograde amnesia in alcohol dependent patients.
Indicate reversible brain damage.
1. Acute brain disease:
Unable to register new memories
Antero grade and retrograde amnesia
Antero grade amnesia –inability to learn new memories
Retrograde amnesia –inability to recall previously learned material
Remote memory: intact
Korsakoff’s syndrome is the amnestic syndome caused by thiamine deficiency
Other cause - cerobrovascular disease, multiple sclerosis ,ECT
2. Subacute coarse brain disease:
• Amnesia extending over many years.
• Memory for recent events is lost before that for remote events.
• Ribot’s law of memory regression.
3. Chronic coarse brain disease:
24. OTHER AMNESIA.
Anxiety amnesia –occurs when there is
anxious preoccupation or poor
concentration such as depressive illness
or generalised anxiety
Depressive pseudo dementia- more
severe form of amnesia in depressive
Occurs D/t impaired concentration and
resolve once underlying disorder is
Occur in normal subjects due to
process of normal forgetting.
Emotional problems and organic
1. Distortions of recall
2. Distortions of recognition
27. DISTORTIONS OF RECALL
• Unintentional distortion occurs when it filtered through a person's
current emotional, experiential and cognitive state
• The depressed patient describes all past experiences in negative terms
due to the impact of his current mood.
• So a depressed person will highlight their failures while ignoring
and/or forgetting about their successes
• retrospective falsification is inversely related to the degree of insight
1. Retrospective falsification:
• False memory - Recollection of an event which did not occur but
which the individual believes did take place
• Source amnesia: Difficulty in remembering the source from
which the information was acquired.(from one's own recall or
2. False memory/ Memory distrust syndrome :
• Recollection that is partially true and partially false.
• Recalls only part of true memory.
• Childhood sexual abuse by neighbour, since too painful to
recall it to be done by brother.
3. Screen memory:
• Falsification of memory occurring in clear consciousness in
association with organic pathology.
• Filling in of gaps in memory by imagined or untrue experiences
• 2 Broad patterns- Embarassed type -more common- fill in
gaps of memory as a result of awareness of deficit.
• Fantastic type- lacunae are filled in by details, exceeding the
need of memory.
• Fluent plausible lying/ pathological lying
confabulation that occurs in those without organic brain
pathology such as personality disorder of anti social and
• Typically the subject describes various major events and
traumas or makes grandiose claims, and these often
present at a time of personal crisis, such as facing legal
• These individuals Admit their lying.
5. Pseudologia fantastica:
•Variant of pathological lying in which the individual presents
to the hospital with bogus medical illness complex medical
histories and often multiple surgical scars
•Munchausen’s by proxy -A proxy form of this condition
has been described in which the individual, usually a parent,
produces a factitious illness in someone else, generally their
child. This may lead to repeated presentations to hospital
over a prolonged period of time, and both diagnosis and
management can be very challenging in these cases.
6. Munchausen’s syndrome:
• Vorbeireden ( approximate answering)
Patient understands the question but deliberately avoids the
• Clouding of consciousness with disorientation, Auditory and
visual hallucination ,conversion symptoms and recent head
• Ganser observed this amnesia in four criminals to avoid court
7. Vorbeireden or approximate answers:
approximate answers described by Ganser.
• Clouding of consciousness with disorientation,pseudohallucination
• Recent history of head injury, typhus or severe emotional stress.
• Amnesia for the period during which the above symptoms were
• Experience of not remembering that one is remembering.
• A person writes a witty passage and does not realize that
they are quoting from some passage they have seen
elsewhere rather than writing something original.
• The psychotic patient backdates his delusions in spite of the clear
evidence that the illness is of recent origin
• They will say that they have always been persecuted or they
have always been evil.
9. Retrospective delusions:
37. DISTORTIONS OF RECOGNITION
Problem with familiarity of
places and events.
Feeling of having
experienced current event in
past, although it has no basis
Feeling of auditory
Event has been experienced
before but is not presently
associated with appropriate
feelings of familiarity.
New thought recognized as
having previously occurred.
39. • Exaggerated registration, retention and recall.
Flashbulb memories: are those memories
that are associated with intense emotion,
they are unusually vivid, detailed and long
lasting.For ex.the 9/11 terrorist bombings
•Flash backs: Sudden intrusive memories that are
associated with cognitive and emotional experiences of traumatic
events like such an accident
• One of characteristic symptom of PTSD. Also associated with
substance misuse disorders , emotional events.
• Flashbacks involving hallucinogenic experiences can occur in
association with hallucinogenic drugs and possibly cannabis use
after the short-term effects have worn off
• Eidetic images: Visual memories of almost hallucinatory vividness.
due to substance misuse, especially hallucinogenic agents.