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Sr. No. PARTICULARS Page No.
1 Introduction 2
2 History of Automobile Industry In India 3
3 Porter Five Force Model In Indian Automobile Industry 5
4 Maruti Suzuki Ltd. 6
5 Marketing Strategy of Maruti Suzuki Ltd. 9
6 Consumer Behaviour 12
7 Marketing Mix 13
8 Segmenting, Targeting, Positioning 17
9 Porter Five Force Model for Maruti Suzuki Ltd. 20
10 Three Generic Strategies 22
11 SWOT Analysis 23
12 BCG Matrix 26
13 Product Life Cycle 27
14 Ratio Analysis 28
15 Conclusion 37
The Indian automobile sector is one of its most vibrant industries. The industry accounts for 22
per cent of the country's manufacturing gross domestic product (GDP). It comprises passenger
cars, two-wheelers, three-wheelers and commercial vehicles and is currently the seventh-largest
in the world with an average annual production of 17.5 million vehicles, of which 2.3 million are
exported. The Indian auto market has the potential to dominate the global auto industry, provided
a conducive environment is created for potential innovators to come up with new pilot projects.
The next few years are projected to show solid but cautious growth due to improved
affordability, rising incomes and untapped markets. All these open up an opportunity for
automobile manufactures in India. In addition, with the government's backing and a special focus
on exports of small cars, multi-utility vehicles (MUVs), two and three-wheelers and auto
components, the automotive sector's contribution to the GDP is expected to double, reaching a
turnover of US$ 145 billion in 2016, according to the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-
The automobile industry produced a total of 1,861,849 vehicles including passenger vehicles,
commercial vehicles, three-wheelers and two-wheelers in April 2014 as against 1,687,243 in
April 2013, registering a growth of 10.35 percent over the corresponding month of 2013. The
growth is mostly attributed to the rise in two-wheeler production.
Two-wheeler sales registered growth of 11.67 percent in April 2014 over April 2013. Within this
segment, scooters, motorcycles and mopeds grew by 26.08 percent, 8.06 percent and 0.23
In April 2014, passenger car sales stood at 1,786,899 units while utility vehicles sales stood at
525,942 units, as per data from Society of Indian Mobile Manufacturers (SIAM). Export of
utility vehicles showed an improvement of 298 percent with 41,550 units.
Tractor sales in the country will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8-9 per cent
in the next five years making India a high-potential market for international brands such as
Kubota, Case New Holland, AGCO. Same Deutz Fahr and John Deere, according to JD Power
Asia Pacific's maiden pilot study on the Indian tractor market.
The cumulative foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the Indian automobile industry
during the period April 2000 -May 2014 was recorded at US$ 9,885.21 million, according to data
published by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
HISTORY OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA:
The first car on Indian roads ran in 1897. Until the 1930s, cars were imported directly, but in
very small numbers.
An embryonic automotive industry emerged in India in the 1940s. Hindustan was launched in
1942, long time competitor Premier in 1944. They built GM and Fiat products respectively.
Mahindra & Mahindra was established by two brothers in 1945, and began assembly of Jeep CJ-
3A utility vehicles. Following the independence, in 1947, the Government of India and the
private sector launched efforts to create an automotive component manufacturing industry to
supply to the automobile industry. In 1953 an import substitution programme was launched, and
the import of fully built-up cars began to be impeded.
However, the growth was relatively slow in the 1950s and 1960s due to nationalisation and the
license raj which hampered the Indian private sector. Total restrictions for import of vehicles
were set and after 1970 the automotive industry started to grow, but the growth was mainly
driven by tractors, commercial vehicles and scooters. Cars were still a major luxury item. In the
1970s price controls were finally lifted, inserting a competitive element into the automobile
market. By the 1980s, the automobile market was still dominated by Hindustan and Premier,
who sold superannuated products in fairly limited numbers. During the eighties, a few
competitors began to arrive on the scene.
To promote the auto industry the government started the Delhi Auto Expo which was had its
debut showcasing in 1986. The Auto Expo of 1986 was a window for technology transfers
showing how the Indian Automotive Industry was absorbing new technologies and promoting
indigenous research and development for adapting these technologies for the rugged Indian
conditions. The nine day show was marked by then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
Eventually multinational automakers, such as, though not limited to, Suzuki and Toyota of Japan
and Hyundai of South Korea, were allowed to invest in the Indian market ultimately leading to
the establishment of an automotive industry in India. Maruti Suzuki was the first, and the most
successful of these new entries, and in part the result of government policies to promote the
automotive industry beginning in the 1980s. As India began to liberalise their automobile market
in 1991, a number of foreign firms also initiated joint ventures with existing Indian companies.
The variety of options available to the consumer began to multiply in the nineties, whereas
before there had usually only been one option in each price class. By 2000, there were 12 large
automotive companies in the Indian market, most of them offshoots of global companies.
Exports were slow to grow. Sales of small numbers of vehicles to tertiary markets and
neighbouring countries began early, and in 1987 Maruti Suzuki shipped 480 cars to Europe
(Hungary). After some growth in the mid-nineties, exports once again began to drop as the
outmoded platforms handed down to Indian manufacturers by multinationals were not
This was not to last. The de-licensing of the industry in 1993 opened the sluice gates a flood of
international auto-makers that rushed into what they saw as the last remaining untapped market -
the largest democratic market of the world. The next couple of years saw an unprecedented
growth in the industry with assembly lines working overtime to meet demand. Dazzled by the
potential of India's 100 million odd people, car companies planned ambitious capacities.
However, India was a much tougher markets than they had imagined. They under estimated
Maruti's strangle hold of the bottom end of the market and were unable to compete with it on
price and sheer value for money.
Today India manufactures low-priced cars for markets across the globe. As of 18 March 2013
global brands such as Proton Holdings, Kia, Mazda, Chrysler, Dodge and Geely Holding Group
are shelving plans for India due to the global economic crisis.
PORTER FIVE FORCES MODEL IN THE INDIAN AUTOMOBILE
Threat from New Players: Increasing
Most of the major global players are present in the
Indian Market; a few more are expected to enter.
Financial strength assumes importance as high
investments are required for building capacity.
Access to distribution network is important.
Although important for all segments, having a
distribution network in rural areas is vital for two-
Lower tariffs in the post-World Trade Organization
era may expose Indian companies to threat of
imports (however, the threat may be mitigated by
non-tariff barriers that may still exist).
Market Strength of
A large number of
suppliers are present
in the Indian
are rationalizing their
vendor base to achieve
consistency in quality.
Rivalry within the
There is keen
competition in select
segments (such as the
Compact and Mid-size
segments in passenger
cars, and the motorcycle
segment in two-
players may enter the
Market Strength of Consumers:
Increases awareness among
consumers has raised expectations.
Thus, the ability to innovate
(technology being the enabler) is
Product Differentiation via new
features, improved performance and
after sales support is critical.
Increases competitive intensity has
limited the pricing power of
Threat from Substitutes:
With consumer preferences changing, inter-
product substitution is taking place (scooters
are being replaced by motorcycles, and Mini
cars by Compact Mid-size cars.
Maruti Udyog Limited was established in February 1981, though the actual production
commenced only in 1983. It started with Maruti 800, based on the Suzuki Alto Kei car which at
the time was the only modern car available in India. Its only competitors were Hindustan
Ambassador and Premier Padmini. Originally, 74% of the company was owned by the Indian
government, and 26% by Suzuki of Japan. In May 2007, the government of India sold its
complete share to Indian financial institutions and no longer has any stake in Maruti Udyog.
Maruti's history begins in 1970, when a private limited company named 'Maruti technical
services private limited' (MTSPL) is launched on November 16, 1970. The stated purpose of this
company was to provide technical know-how for the design, manufacture and assembly of "a
wholly indigenous motor car". In June 1971, a company called 'Maruti limited' was incorporated
under the Companies Act and Sanjay Gandhi became its first managing director. "Maruti
Limited" goes into liquidation in 1977. On 23 June 1980 Sanjay Gandhi dies when a private test
plane he was flying crashes. A year after his death, and at the behest of Indira Gandhi, the Indian
Central government salvages Maruti Limited and starts looking for an active collaborator for a
new company. Maruti Udyog Ltd is incorporated in the same year.
In 1982, a license & Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) is signed between Maruti Udyog Ltd. and
Suzuki of Japan. At first, Maruti Suzuki was mainly an importer of cars. In India's closed market,
Maruti received the right to import 40,000 fully built-up Suzuki’s in the first two years, and even
after that the early goal was to use only 33% indigenous parts. This upset the local manufacturers
considerably. There were also some concerns that the Indian market was too small to absorb the
comparatively large production planned by Maruti Suzuki, with the government even
considering adjusting the petrol tax and lowering the excise duty in order to boost sales. Finally,
in 1983, the Maruti 800 is released. This 796 cc hatchback is based on the SS80 Suzuki Alto and
is India’s first affordable car. Initial product plan is 40% saloons, and 60% Maruti Van. Local
production commences in December 1983. In 1984 the Maruti Van, with the same three-cylinder
engine as the 800, is released. Installed capacity of the plant in Gurgaon, reaches 40,000 units.
In 1985 the Suzuki SJ410-based Gypsy, a 970 cc 4WD off-road vehicle, is launched. In 1986 the
original 800 is replaced by an all-new model of the 796 cc hatchback Suzuki Alto/Fronte. This is
also when the 100,000th vehicle is produced by the company. In 1987 follows the company's
first export to the West, when a lot of 500 cars were sent to Hungary. Maruti products had been
exported to certain neighboring countries already. By 1988, the capacity of the Gurgaon plant is
increased to 100,000 units per annum.
In 1989 the Maruti 1000 is presented after having been shown earlier. This 970 cc, three-box is
India’s first contemporary sedan. By 1991 65 percent of the components, for all vehicles
produced, are indigenised. Meanwhile, the liberalisation of the Indian economy opens new
opportunities but also brings more competition to the segments in which Maruti operates. In
1992 Suzuki increases its stake in Maruti to 50 percent, making the company a 50-50 JV with the
Government of India the other stake holder.
A flow of new models begin in the early nineties. In 1993 the Zen, a modern 993 cc, hatchback
which is later exported globally as the Suzuki Alto. In 1994 the 1298 cc Esteem appears, a more
luxurious redesigned Maruti 1000. This and other Marutis begin appearing in a plethora of
different equipment levels, to better suit India's increasingly discerning consumers. A Zen
Automatic arrives in 1996, as does the Gypsy King, a 1.3 liter version of the compact off-roader,
and a minibus version of the Omni (the Omni E).
In 1994 Maruti Suzuki produces its 1 millionth vehicle since the commencement of production,
being the first company in India to do so. This is still not enough in a booming market and the
next year Maruti's second plant is opened, with annual capacity reaching 200,000 units. Maruti
also launches a 24-hour emergency on-road vehicle service, the first of its kind in the country. In
1996 the United Front government is formed, with Murasoli Maran new Industries Minister. On
27 August the following year the government nominates Mr. S.S.L.N. Bhaskarudu as the
Managing Director, as the then current Managing director R.C. Bhargava, was completing his
tenure. This creates a conflict with Suzuki, discussed closer in the Joint venture related issues
In 1998 the new Maruti 800 is released, the first change in design since 1986. This is simply a
facelift of the existing model, to ensure steady sales. Also, the two millionth vehicle is produced.
Other news included the Zen D, a 1527 cc diesel hatchback and Maruti's first diesel vehicle. The
Omni van and microbus is also redesigned. The next year the Omni bus arrives in a high roof
version, the Omni XL. The 1.6 liter Maruti Baleno three-box saloon, advertised as the 'Maruti
Suzuki Baleno', also appears. This is Maruti's biggest car yet. Finally, in what is a very busy
year, the Wagon R is launched.
In 2000 Maruti becomes the first car company in India to launch a Call Center for internal and
customer services. The new Alto model is also released, somewhat larger and more modern than
the 800. The estate Baleno Altura is also shown, while IDTR (Institute of Driving Training and
Research) is launched jointly with the Delhi government to promote safe driving habits. In 2001
Maruti True Value, selling and buying used Maruti Suzukis, is launched in Bangalore and Delhi,
later in Mumbai and elsewhere. In October of the same year the Maruti Versa sees the day, a
bigger engined and more luxurious microbus than the Omni. It never catches on in the market
and is discontinued by late 2009, only to be replaced by a cheaper, stripped-down version called
Eeco. Customer information centers are also launched in Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chennai. In
2002 the Esteem Diesel appears, as does Maruti Insurance. Two new subsidiaries are also
started: Maruti Insurance Distributor Services and Maruti Insurance Brokers Limited. Suzuki
Motor Corporation increases its stake in Maruti to 54.2 percent.
In 2003 the new Suzuki Grand Vitara XL-7 appears, while the Zen and the Wagon R are
upgraded and redesigned. The four millionth Maruti vehicle is built and they enter into a
partnership with the State Bank of India. Maruti Udyog Ltd is listed on BSE and NSE after a
public issue, which is oversubscribed tenfold. In 2004 the Alto became India's new bestselling
car, overtaking the Maruti 800 which had been number one for nearly two decades. The five-
seater Versa 5-seater, a new variant, is created while the Esteem undergoes cosmetic changes and
is re-launched with a price cut. Maruti Udyog closed the financial year 2003-04 with an annual
sale of 472,122 units, the highest ever since the company began operations 20 years earlier, and
the fiftieth lakh (5 millionth) car rolls out in April, 2005, with overall sales growing by 15.8%.
The 1.3 L Suzuki Swift five-door hatchback also appears. 2004-05 marked another record year
(487,402 domestic sales) and exports reached 48,899 cars to about fifty different countries. The
United Kingdom took the lion's share, with 10,623 deliveries.
In 2006 Suzuki and Maruti set up another joint venture, "Maruti Suzuki Automobiles India", to
build two new manufacturing plants, one for vehicles and one for engines. Cleaner cars were also
introduced, with several new models meeting the new "Bharat Stage III" standards. In February
2012, Maruti Suzuki sold its ten millionth vehicle in India. For the Month of July 2014, it has a
Market share of >45 %.
In August 2014, CCI imposed a fine of around 2,545 crore on 14 auto companies for indulging in
anti-competitive trade agreements. CCI has directed these companies to put in place an effective
system for purchasing spare parts. Among the companies fined, Maruti Suzuki was slapped a
fine of 471.14 Cr.
On 3 September 2014, the Delhi High Court has stayed the Competition Commission of India’s
penalty on Maruti Suzuki.
MARKETING STRATEGY OF MARUTI SUZIKI LTD:
In earlier days when the market was dominated by only few brands like Ambassador & Premier
Padmini, Maruti Suzuki India Limited entered the Indian market with different strategy. The
strategy of the company was to offer a compact, modern and fuel efficient car. Maruti released
its first Maruti 800 car on 14 December 1983 to fulfill the dreams of Indian customers and
became the market leader. Since 1983 till date Maruti Suzuki gradually offered several choices
to the consumer. Due to aggressive competitors today Maruti Suzuki believes in Innovative
Marketing Strategies. With the changing needs, wants & requirements of customers and markets,
Maruti Suzuki is altering their Brand Positioning, Advertising and Distribution strategy.
BRAND POSITIONING STRATEGY:
Brand Positioning is the most vital concept in a brand‘s strategy. Brand Positioning is also linked
with managing a brand‘s meaning. Today several brand of cars are positioning themselves on the
features like Price, Comfort dimensions, Safety, Mileage etc. Currently Maruti Suzuki followed a
very effective multi-segmentation strategy to grab the different segments of the market with
different versions of its brands. About brand positioning Mayank Pareek says that, Maruti Suzuki
believe in research and before launching a product the Maruti team does an extensive research on
the needs of the customer. Maruti try to understand the customer‘s demography and psychology
to position a brand. Also the company follows the suggestions made by existing customers.
Every company is it a big or small needs an innovative promotional strategy because
promotional campaigns tend to have a huge effect on the reception of the product. Maruti Suzuki
India Ltd has a formidable line-up of vehicles in its stable and has been quite aggressive about
promoting each of its automobile brands. With an intention to face with cutthroat competition
and due to declining market shares, in 2000 Maruti Suzuki cut the prices of few models like
Wagon R, Omni and Maruti 800 because Maruti knew very well that the Indian consumer is very
sensitive about price & this price cut will definitely beneficial for company. In Jan 2002 to
attract the customers, Maruti decided that some of its corporate assets in Delhi including
Maruti‘s manufacturing plant and children‘s park should be promoted. With an intention to
promote road safety and efficient driving the company held ‘carnivals’ periodically at IDTR.
In 2003, to attract the customers Maruti Suzuki launched attractive campaign like ―Change
Your Life‖. The company also offered vehicle insurance for One rupee only. In this campaign the
customers were asked to write down the chassis and engine number of their vehicles on the entry
form and had to answer the question. In this contest the winners were chosen by a draw of lots
and were entitled to gifts worth Rs.50 million.
In 2004, Maruti introduced the ‘2599’ offer under which by paying an EMI of Rs. 2599 for
seven years after a down payment of Rs.40000, a consumer could buy a Maruti 800. In 2004
Maruti introduced the ‘Teacher Plus’ scheme, in a tie up with SBI. In this scheme the bank
offered reduced rates of interest for teachers who were interested in buying a new car.
Rural India is a fast emerging as a focus area in the country‘s economy. Maruti knew that there is
a great potential in rural markets & in rural markets, the endorsements of opinion makers takes
precedence over an informed objective Judgment. Considering this fact, Maruti Suzuki launched
a panchayat scheme for such opinion makers which covers the village Sarpanch, doctors and
teachers in government instititutions, rural bank officers where in an extra discount is given to
make a sell. As a part of customer engaging strategy and to attract the potential customers Maruti
organized various melas wherein local flavor is added by organizing traditional social activities
like Gramin Mahotsava are conducted round the year. As a part of promotional approach Maruti
Suzuki promoted Swift & other brands through sponsoring various live programmes (Dancing
shows) like Dance India Dance.
Advertising is one aspect of brand building. Whenever Maruti launched any brand, it supported
that brand with an ad campaign. Maruti‘s advertising campaigns included TVCs, Radio and Print
ads, Point of Sale, Mobile promotions, online marketing, Outdoor promotions. Maruti‘s
advertising strategy focused both on building up its corporate image and promoting its cars.
Maruti‘s campaigns emphasized different aspects of its cars, including fuel efficiency, looks,
In the late 1990s, Maruti‘s advertising campaigns were handled by Lowe India (later known as
Lowe Lintas & Partners, India) and Rediffusion DY&R. While advertising related to Esteem,
Zen and Baleno were handled by Lowe India and the ad campaign of Maruti 800, Gypsy, Omni
and Wagon-R were handled by Rediffusion. With an intention to promote the all brands
effectively, in 2000 Maruti decided to appoint Capital Advertising. In 2003, Maruti Suzuki came
up with an innovative advertising that became popular for its simplicity and clear message. In
this ad one child plays with his toy car & when the father asked him, he replies, ‘Kya karoon
papa petrol khatam hi nahi hota’. This ad depicted the fuel efficiency of Maruti Suzuki.
Distribution is an important marketing mix. In earlier days the consumers used to book for a car
and wait for more than a year to actually buy it. Also the concept of Show rooms was non-
existent. Even worse thing was the state of the after sales service. With an objective to change
this scenario & to offer better service to customers, Maruti took initiative. To gain competitive
advantage, Maruti Suzuki developed a unique distribution network. Presently the company has a
sales network of 802 centers in 555 towns and cities, and provides service support to customers
at 2740 workshops in over 1335 towns and cities.
The basic objective behind establishing the vast distribution network was to reach the customers
even in remote areas and deliver the products of the company. The company has formed the
Dealer territories and the concept of competition amongst these dealers has been brought about.
Periodically corporate image campaigns in all dealership are carried out. In 2003, to increase the
competition the company implemented a strategy for its dealers to increase their profitability
levels. Special awards were sometimes given by company for sales of special categories. Maruti
Suzuki had given an opportunity to dealers to make more profits from various avenues like used
car finance and insurance services. In 2001, Maruti started an initiative known as ‗Non Stop
Maruti Express Highway‘. As a part of this initiative Maruti developed 255 customer service
outlets along with 21 highway routes by 2001-02. Also with an intention to provide fast service
in less time Maruti had offered Express Service Facility. In the year 2008, Maruti had near about
2,500 rural dealer sales executives, among the total 15,000 dealer sales executives.
For any company it is important to know about the needs and requirements of their customers. It
has been found that the most searched car in India is Maruti Suzuki and it sells more than half
the cars in India. Maruti Suzuki also enjoys 70 percent repeat buyer which in tune with its claim
of being consumer friendly.
There are several aspects that consumer look at with varying degree:
1. Price: People look for affordable price. They have their budget that they can spend on a
car. For middle class and lower middle class Indian price is a very important factor.
Maruti has been successful in catering to their needs.
2. Mileage: Consumers look at mileage. In this scenario of rising petrol prices mileage
becomes a very important characteristic. Fuel efficiency of car is demanded by all
categories of buyers.
3. Brand Recognition and Association: Consumer likes to be associated with an
established brands. It gives them a sense of security.
4. Durability and Warranty: A car is not purchased very often. Customers look for
5. Appearance and Style: Car is status symbol for many customers. It’s a form of
portraying their class and current financial condition. These customers give a lot of
importance on the appearance and style. Relatively young customers look more for style
than old ones.
6. Reliability and Trust: A brand should be associated with trust and reliability, only then
will it be positioned in the minds of the people for a longer time and can succeed in the
7. Availability: With the explosion of choices, products should be easily available
otherwise prospective customers will shift to the competitors. Ease of availability can
also bring competitors customers to our brand if they fail in this category.
8. Resale Value: People like to change cars after certain number of years which depends on
several parameters. New car purchase is often accompanied by exchange of old car.
Hence a high resale value is what customers look for and Maruti provides this.
The basic elements of marketing mix of a company are the 4 P’s (Product, Price, Place and
Promotion). The 4 P’s of marketing helps in determining the various marketing strategies
adopted by the company.
Maruti Suzuki has divided its product line into five segments as per the following table.
Product Line Products
A1 (Mini) 800
A2 (Compact/Hatchback) Alto, Swift, Ritz, Celerio
A3 (Mid-size) Swift DZire, SX4
Utility Vehicle Gypsy, Grand Vitara
Multi-Purpose Vehicle Omni, Eeco
The cars have also been divided into its various variants depending on the type of fuel used.
Some cars have been rolled out for use with both petrol and diesel. With rising prices of petrol,
there is a sharp demand for diesel-run vehicles. Also, Maruti Suzuki has two of its cars with
CNG fitting too. These are vehicles that run on CNG. Examples of CNG run cars are Alto 800,
Eeco, Wagon R, Celerio, Ertiga and SX4. By the year 2015, Maruti Suzuki is planning to launch
an electric car by the name Swift Hybrid, which will be a hatchback car.
The prices of the cars of Maruti Suzuki have generally been set to target the lower middle class
and middle class families in India. Their pricing strategy is based on their continuing vision of
“Putting India on Four Wheels”. Their prices are so designed as to enable people to upgrade
from 2-wheelers to 4-wheelers and already 4-wheeler owners to upgrade to a better 4-wheeler
offered by the company.
In 2007, though the company changed its price strategy as it was being labeled as low-price
small car manufacturer. They launched plans of a new car in the premium car segment, Maruti
Suzuki Kizashi, to remove this label attached to the company’s reputation.
The following chart shows the various products and their price range of the cars of Maruti
Suzuki Ltd. in India
This is one part of the marketing mix where Maruti Suzuki has an advantage over all of its
competitors due to their presence in the country for the longest time as compared to its rivals.
They enjoy a well distributed and an extensive network of car sale outlets, exclusive showrooms,
authorized service stations, true value outlets. Maruti Suzuki has two state-of-the-art
manufacturing facilities setup in Gurgaon and Manesar to the south of Delhi. The combined
capacity for the two plants is 1.2 million vehicles on an annual basis.
Some numbers showing the extensive network for Maruti Suzuki are:
Showrooms and Car Sale Outlets - 933 covering 668 cities.
Authorised Service Stations – 1845 covering 1395 cities.
Dealership Outlets – 1101
True Value Outlets – 353 covering 208 cities.
Express Service Stations on Highways - 30
The True Value Outlets were started with a view to retain the customers under exchange
programs enabling the customers to upgrade their existing car models. Later these outlets were
converted to be a different vertical business unit of Maruti Suzuki Ltd. to capture the market for
pre owned cars in India based on the high resale value of Maruti Suzuki cars giving up to 70
percent return on resale.
The company has for most of its years of operation targeted the Indian middle class families as
their main consumers. That’s why their promotional strategy has always been to create an
emotional connect with the audience. Maruti Suzuki Ltd. has used various media of promotion.
TV - There has been a lot of advertisements through this media as most of the target
audience connects to Maruti Suzuki through its emotional TV commercials company
touches everyone irrespective of their demographics, age, occupation etc. There is always
an advantage when an connection is made with the audience through audio-visual means
as it is supposed to leave an ever lasting impact on the consumers.
Print Media – The Company has also used newspaper, magazines to promote its product
to the consumers.
Radio – The Company also uses radio as an important media for advertising its product
line. It sponsors certain shows on air, events for all radio listeners etc.
Apart from this, Maruti Suzuki Ltd. has also partnered with certain TV shows like “India’s Got
Talent” and also provides sponsorships to certain famous events to make its presence felt. The
company is also involved in certain CSR activities mostly around its manufacturing units to
make people grow with the company. This all helps in creating a visibility and goodwill for the
company for the non-existing customers and hence, increasing the sales.
There are strategic alliances that Maruti Suzuki Ltd. has entered into with many banks, insurance
firms to provide its customers with financing and insurance products for making the process of
purchase of car easier for them. Maruti Suzuki also provides its customers with a “Auto Card”.
This is a loyalty program introduced by the company to retain the customers and to increase the
company’s brand loyalty. Under this program, every new customer gets initial brownie points
equal to 100 points on purchase of a car. Afterwards, on every purchase of Rs. 100 for any
Maruti Suzuki product (including car-servicing), customers earn 3 points. Moreover, they can
earn 3000 points when they upgrade from one Maruti Suzuki car to another Maruti Suzuki car.
On referrals they can earn up to 1000 points if the referral gets converted into a sale.
The Company also conducts mega camps where they provide AC and pollution checks,
complimentary car wash to its customers to improve customer relations.
Maruti Suzuki Ltd. also has an extensive CRM program to manage its relationships with
customers. Apart from all this, the company also has various seasonal campaigns to target the
audience like festival times to capture the celebration mood of people and convert it into sales.
Festivals like Navratri, Diwali etc. are times when huge discounts or other gifts are offered by
SEGMENTING, TARGETING AND POSITIONING:
Based on the economic strata the Indian automobile consumer segment is divided in five
Economy (priced less than 3 lakhs)
Mid Range (priced between 3-5 lakhs)
Luxury (priced between 5-10 lakhs)
Premium (priced between 10-20 lakhs)
Super Premium (priced above 20 lakhs)
The economic segment caters to the need of the rural and the semi urban population, whereas the
mid range segment takes care to the needs of all three i.e. rural, semi urban and the urban
population. The luxury segment takes care of the semi urban and the urban population and as
there are no cars of Maruti in the super premium segment so the needs of the affluent class is not
Maruti is segmented also on the basis of income groups present in the country i.e. the people
having an income of 3 lakhs per annum consider cars of economy range which are Alto and
Omni. People falling in the income range of 3-5 lakhs per annum consider the mid range
segment of Maruti cars which include A-Star, Swift and Ritz. The people with an income more
than 5 lakhs per annum mainly consider cars in luxury and premium segment of Maruti cars such
as SX4, Swift Dzire etc.
Maruti faces stiff competition from Chevrolet Beat, Tata Indica, Fiat Punto and Hyundai I10 in
the automobile sector. Maruti provides all the basic features which are required in a car by a
customer so it is clearly the market leader in the Indian automobile sector.
The following table shows us the comparison between the market share of Maruti Suzuki Ltd.
compared with other automobile companies in India.
Jan - June '14 Jan - June '13
Maruti Suzuki 46.27% 43.83%
Hyundai 16.92% 15.60%
Mahindra 9.28% 10.76%
Honda Cars 7.29% 4.02%
Toyota 4.94% 5.98%
Tata Motors 4.86% 5.75%
Ford 3.25% 2.45%
Chevrolet 2.70% 3.71%
Nissan, Fiat) 4.49% 7.91%
There are various taglines associated with different Maruti cars which signifies the uniqueness of
each car on its own, like the tagline for Alto was “Let’s Go In An Alto”, for Swift it was “You
Are The Fuel” and for SX4 it was “Men Are Back”. These taglines completely associate all these
Since the demand of the Indian consumer has risen and also a stiff competition faced by Maruti
in the car segment has forced Maruti to reposition some of its product and also to discontinue
some products which were not making profits. Omni has been given a major facelift in terms of
interiors and exteriors and the new version called Omni Cargo was launched in the market for the
people who wanted a car to travel and also carry the cargo carried by them.
Wagon- R was perceived as dull boxy car when it was lunched. Then further modifications were
made in engine to increase performance and a facelift in the form of sporty looking grills on the
roof. Now it’s of the most successful models in Maruti. The production of Zen was stopped as
the demand for a product which involved recent technology was required. Hence the new Zen
Estillo was launched into the market.
The most important result of the research of Maruti Suzuki was the innovation of the K- Series
engines. The company’s next generation, K- Series engines employ a plethora of state-of-the-art
technologies to deliver on all these fronts. These engines were said to be leaner, meaner and
thinner than the rest of the engines used by the other companies. These engines were more fuel
efficient and swifter than the engines which Maruti Suzuki earlier used.
PHASING OUT OF CERTAIN MODELS:
Maruti Suzuki’s first sedan Esteem (formerly called Maruti 1000) was phased out slowly due to
availability of other cars with better features at the same price from its competitors stable. It was
soon replaced by Swift Dzire to gain back the lost market share.
The production of Baleno was stopped in 2011 to make way for a new model as part of the
company’s strategy to bring new models to the market.
PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL FOR MARUTI SUZUKI LTD.:
Michael Porter identified five forces that determined the long run attractiveness of a business.
The following is the analysis of Porter’s five forces in context of Maruti Suzuki Ltd.
THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS: INCREASING
Although most of the major global players are present in the Indian market, few more are
expected to enter due to the welcoming government policies.
THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE: LOW TO MEDIUM
Maruti Suzuki faces threat from consumers shifting to hybrid or electric cars. Currently, the
electric car market in India is dominated by sole player Reva Electric Car Company. However
brands like Tata Motors, Chevrolet and Nissan are also planning to launch their electric car in the
BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIER: LOW
Automakers are the key to the supply chain of the automotive industry. Maruti Suzuki has
manufacturing units where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by first tier suppliers
and second tier suppliers are assembled. There are a large number of automobile components
suppliers whose switching cost are very high. Thus reducing the bargaining power of the
COMPETITIVE RIVALRY: HIGH
Competition in certain segments is very high e.g. small and mid car segment. Brands like
Hyundai, Chevrolet, Tata and Skoda have given huge competition to Maruti Suzuki. In the recent
past Volkswagon, Honda, Ford have also given competition to the premium car segment.
BARGAINING POWER OF CONSUMERS: HIGH
Increase in consumer awareness and increasing competition has forced Maruti to either reduce
the prices of its cars or provide extra services to the consumers at the same rate
THREE GENERIC STRATEGIES:
To cope up with the five competitive forces there are Three Generic Strategies Maruti Suzuki
Ltd. has applied.
1. To Achieve Cost Leadership: To realize economies of scale capital investment in state-
of-the-art equipment plant is required. Maruti Suzuki has set up two such manufacturing
facilities in India.
Gurgaon Facility (300 acres) housing the ‘K’ engine plant
Manesar Facility (600 acres)
2. Differentiation: Maruti has created a difference in the market by providing the
consumers with quality fuel efficient cars at affordable prices. It has also differentiated
itself from other companies by providing excellent after sale service at various service
centers across the country.
3. Focus: Focus is the moderator between cost leadership and differentiation.
Cost Focus: Maruti has tried to offer a low price product to a small and
specialized group of buyers. This has helped Maruti to cut down prices just hours
before Tata introduced Indica.
Differentiation Focus: Maruti has a niche of premium products available at a
premium price. Maruti Kizashi and Maruti Vitara provides the possibility to
charge a premium price for superior quality.
1. Bigger name in the market
2. Established distribution and after sales network
3. Understanding of the Indian market
4. Ability to design product with differentiating features
5. Brand image
6. Experience and know-how in technology
7. Trust of people
8. Maruti Suzuki is the market leader for more than a decade
9. Has a great dealership chain in the market
10. Better after sale service
11. Low maintenance cost of vehicle
1. Lack of experience in foreign market
2. Comparatively new to electric or hybrid cars
3. People resistant to upper segment models
4. Heavy import tariff on fully built imported models
5. Exports are low
6. Lesser diesel models in the market compared to others
7. Global image not big
1. Increased purchasing power of Indian middle class family
2. Government subsidies
3. Tax benefits
4. Prospective buyers from two wheeler segment
5. Great opportunities to global with success of Swift and SX4
6. Introduction of more diesel models
7. Opportunity to grow bigger by entering into bigger car markets
8. Already a market leader which provides the opportunity to be at the top of the market in
every stage of industry.
1. Foreign companies entering market, so a bigger threat from MNCs
2. Competition from second hand cars
3. Threats from Chinese manufacturers
4. Threat to market share as many big names are entering the industry
5. Lower number of diesel models
6. Lower cost competitors like Tata Nano
The BCG (Boston Consulting Group) model is a well known portfolio management tool used in
product life cycle theory. BCG matrix is often used to prioritize which product within the
company’s product mix gets more funding and attention.
The Stars is the scenario where there is the optimum situation of high growth and high share, this
method requires an increased investment due to the continuous growth. Maruti Suzuki Zen and
Swift are in this scenario.
The Cash Cow cycle deals with low growth and high share. This scenario requires a low
investment and growth is also slow. Wagon R and Alto are under this scenario.
The Dogs method is the situation where the growth is low and the market share is low, this is one
of the worst situations. In this situation if the products are not delivering the cash then it is best to
liquidate. Omni and Versa belong to this segment.
The last part of the cycle is the Question Mark which is high market growth but low shares. In
this situation there is a high demand but low returns. It is best to try and increase market share or
get it to deliver cash. SX4 and A Star belong to this scenario.
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE:
For cars like Alto K10 and Kizashi market share is slight but marketing costs are high
Swift Dzire, Zen Estillo and SX4 are characterized by rapid growth in sales and profit
In case of Alto, Wagon R and Swift competition is intense and any significant move is likely to
be copied by competitors.
Market for Omni and Gypsy is shrinking, thus reducing the overall profit.
Absolute figures expressed in financial statements by themselves are meaningfulness. These
figures often do not convey much meaning unless expressed in relation to other figures. Thus, it
can be say that the relationship between two figures, expressed in arithmetical terms is called a
TYPES OF RATIOS:-
Proportion or Pure Ratio or Simple ratio.
Rate or so many Times.
OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES OR USES OF RATIO ANALYSIS:-
Ratios are worked out to analyze the following aspects of business organization-
1. Long term
2. Short term
Effective utilization of resources
Leverage or external financing
LIMITATION OF RATIO ANALYSIS:-
False accounting data gives false ratios
Comparisons not possible of different firms adopt different accounting policies.
Ratio analysis becomes less effective due to price level change
Ratios may be misleading in the absence of absolute data.
Limited use of a single Ratio.
Lack of proper standards.
Ratio alone are not adequate for proper conclusions
Effect of personal ability and bias of the analyst.
CLASSIFICATION OF RATIOS:-
BASED ON FINANCIAL STATEMENT:-
Accounting ratios express the relationship between figures taken from financial statements.
Figures may be taken from Balance Sheet, P& P A/C, or both. One-way of classification of ratios
is based upon the sources from which are taken.
1] Balance sheet ratio:
If the ratios are based on the figures of balance sheet, they are called Balance Sheet Ratios. E.g.
Ratio of current assets to current liabilities or Debt to equity ratio. While calculating these ratios,
there is no need to refer to the Revenue statement. These ratios study the relationship between
the assets & the liabilities, of the concern. These ratios help to judge the liquidity, solvency &
capital structure of the concern. Balance sheet ratios are Current ratio, Liquid ratio, and
Proprietary ratio, Capital gearing ratio, Debt equity ratio, and Stock working capital ratio.
2] Revenue ratio:
Ratio based on the figures from the revenue statement is called revenue statement ratios. These
ratios study the relationship between the profitability & the sales of the concern. Revenue ratios
are Gross profit ratio, Operating ratio, Expense ratio, Net profit ratio, Net operating profit ratio,
Stock turnover ratio.
3] Composite ratio:
These ratios indicate the relationship between two items, of which one is found in the balance
sheet & other in revenue statement.
There are two types of composite ratios-
a) Some composite ratios study the relationship between the profits & the investments of the
concern. E.g. return on capital employed, return on proprietors fund, return on equity capital
b) Other composite ratios e.g. debtors turnover ratios, creditors turnover ratios, dividend
payout ratios, & debt service ratios.
BASED ON FUNCTION:-
Accounting ratios can also be classified according to their functions in to liquidity ratios,
leverage ratios, activity ratios, profitability ratios & turnover ratios.
1] Liquidity ratios:
It shows the relationship between the current assets & current liabilities of the concern e.g. liquid
ratios & current ratios.
2] Leverage ratios:
It shows the relationship between proprietors funds & debts used in financing the assets of the
concern e.g. capital gearing ratios, debt equity ratios, & Proprietary ratios.
3] Activity ratios:
It shows relationship between the sales & the assets. It is also known as Turnover ratios &
productivity ratios e.g. stock turnover ratios, debtors’ turnover ratios.
4] Profitability ratios:
a) It shows the relationship between profits & sales e.g. operating ratios, gross profit ratios,
operating net profit ratios, expenses ratios
b) It shows the relationship between profit & investment e.g. return on investment, return on
5] Coverage ratios:
It shows the relationship between the profit on the one hand & the claims of the outsiders to be
paid out of such profit e.g. dividend payout ratios & debt service ratios.
Based on User:
1] Ratios for short-term creditors: Current ratios, liquid ratios, stock working capital ratios
2] Ratios for the shareholders: Return on proprietors fund, return on equity capital
3] Ratios for management: Return on capital employed, turnover ratios, operating ratios,
4] Ratios for long-term creditors: Debt equity ratios, return on capital employed, proprietor
RATIO ANALYSIS OF MARUTI SUZUKI LTD.
PER SHARE RATIOS
Adjusted EPS (Rs.) 92.13
Adjusted Cash EPS (Rs.) 161.13
Reported EPS (Rs.) 92.13
Reported Cash EPS (Rs.) 161.13
Dividend Per Share 12.00
Operating Profit Per Share (Rs.) 168.69
Book Value (Excl Rev Res) Per Share (Rs.) 694.45
Book Value (Incl. Rev Res) Per Share (Rs.) 694.45
Net Operating Income Per Share (Rs.) 1446.66
Free Reserves Per Share (Rs.) 0
Operating Margin (%) 11.66
Gross Profit Margin (%) 6.89
Net Profit Margin (%) 6.25
Adjusted Cash Margin (%) 10.93
Adjusted Return On Net Worth (%) 13.26
Reported Return On Net Worth (%) 13.26
Return On long Term Funds (%) 17.88
Long Term Debt / Equity 0.02
Total Debt/Equity 0.08
Owners fund as % of total Source 92.56
Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio 2.05
Current Ratio 0.88
Current Ratio (Inc. ST Loans) 0.77
Quick Ratio 0.67
Inventory Turnover Ratio 25.62
Dividend payout Ratio (Net Profit) 13.02
Dividend payout Ratio (Cash Profit) 7.44
Earning Retention Ratio 86.98
Cash Earnings Retention Ratio 92.56
Adjusted Cash Flow Time Total Debt 0.34
Financial Charges Coverage Ratio 33.65
Fin. Charges Cov. Ratio (Post Tax) 28.67
Material Cost Component(% earnings) 72.06
Selling Cost Component 0
Exports as percent of Total Sales 9.47
Import Comp. in Raw Mat. Consumed 9.19
Long term assets / Total Assets 0.76
Bonus Component In Equity Capital (%) 0
Return on Assets stood at 9.7% for FY’14 which is same as of FY’13.
Profit before tax (PBT) was Rs. 36,585 million against Rs. 29,910 million showing an
increase of 22 per cent and Profit after tax (PAT) stood at Rs.27,830 million against Rs.
23,921 million in the previous year showing an increase of 16 per cent.
Consolidated Operating profit margin improved to 11.79% in FY’14 from 9.9% in FY’13
Return on Net worth stood at 13.26% for Mar’14 as against 12.87 for Mar’13
Current ratio has decreased to 0.92 in FY’14 from 1.47 in FY’13.
Inventory Turnover ratio has increased from 25.83 in FY’13 to 30.61 in FY’14
Debtors Turnover ratio has decreased to 33.7 from 43.66 on year on year basis in FY’14
Earnings Per Share was Rs.92.13 in Mar’14 and Rs.79.19 in FY ended Mach’13.
Book Value per Share improved to Rs 694.45 in March’14 as against Rs.615.03 in
Book value of Share is consistently increasing over Years .
YEAR ON YEAR COMPARISON OF RATIOS:
1. Asset Turnover Ratio:
2. Return on Capital Employed:
3. Current Ratio:
March '14 March '13 March '12 March '11 March '10
4. Quick Ratio:
5. Dividend Pay Out Ratio:
March '14 March '13 March '12 March '11 March '10
March '14 March '13 March '12 March '11 March '10
Automobile market today is very dynamic & competitive with a range of players and products.
There are many reasons for the impressive growth of the Indian passenger car Industry. Some of
these are easy availability of vehicle finance, attractive rate of interest and convenient
installments. In today‘s cutthroat competition it is very difficult to survive. Stiff competition has
forced manufacturers to be innovative and responsive to customer demands and needs. Maruti
Suzuki India Limited is a leading company in Indian Automobile sector which occupies
prominent place due to its innovative strategic marketing, promotional, Brand positioning,
advertising strategies. In today‘s scenario the success of company lies in structuring and
restructuring the marketing strategies and continuous innovation of product and services.
The Maruti Suzuki has a huge market and has left no stone unturned to satisfy the customers. It
has models in every segment of the automobile market. Maruti Suzuki stands for value as much
as it stands for performance. In spite of rising input costs, the company tries their best to keep
prices down. Their running costs and resale values are unbeatable too. Competitive strategy of
this company facilitated healthy profit and customer satisfaction and its recognition as a
company which stands for environmental concerns.
1. Marketing Strategy of Maruti Suzuki Ltd. - International Journal of Application or
Innovation in Engineering & Management.
2. Annual Report of Maruti Suzuki Ltd.