Communication process and elements of communication [Lab1]
1. Dr. Arpita Sharma
Dept. of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture
Email Id: email@example.com
According to John W. Newstrom, communication is
the transfer of information from one person to
another. He believes that it is a way of reaching other
by transmitting idea, facts, thoughts, feelings and
3. Elements of Communication
There are six elements of Communication which
Treatment of Message
4. 1. Sender/Communicator/Encoder
The sender also known as the encoder decides on the
message to be sent, the best/most effective way that it
can be sent. All of this is done bearing the receiver in
mind. It is his/her job to conceptualize.
Credibility means trustworthiness and competence.
Characteristics of good communicator:
4-Organization and treatment of message.
5-Professional abilities and limitation.
5. Role of an individual
Audience and its welfare.
Message and how it can help the people.
Results of communication and their evaluation.
Improvement of communication skills.
Individual has skill in selecting messages, treating
messages, expressing messages, understanding the
audience, collecting evidences of results.
6. 2. Message
Message should clearly state what to do, how to do and when to do and what
would be the result.
A good message should be:
Handled by the communicator.
7. 3. Channel
The channel is that which is responsible for the
delivery of the chosen message form. For example post
office, internet, radio.
Channel of the communication constitutes the
medium through which information flows from
sender to receiver.
8. According to form
Farm and Home visit
9. According to nature of personnel
Personal localite: Local leader, Local people
Personal Cosmopolite: Communication channel
from outside the social system of the receiver.
Impersonal cosmopolite: Communication
channel from outside the social system of the
receiver and at the same time no personal face to
face contact is involved.
10. According to nature of contact with
Individual contact: Farm visit, farmers’ Call, personal
Group Contact: Group meetings, Small Group
Training, Study tour.
Mass contact: Mass Meetings, Exhibition, Radio,
11. 4. Treatment and presentation
Treatment means the way a message is processed so
that the information gets across the audience.
The purpose of treatment is to make the message
clear, understandable and realistic to the
Presentation means how the message is
communicated or placed before the audience.
Treatment and presentation of the message shall
depend to great extent on choice of the channel and
nature of the audience.
12. 5. Receiver/ Audience/ Decoder
The receiver or the decoder is responsible for
extracting/decoding meaning from the message. The
receiver is also responsible for providing feedback to
the sender. In a word, it is his/her job to interpret.
The audience or receiver of message is the target of
13. 6. Audience response
Response of the audience is the ultimate objective of
any communication function.
Response of an audience to message received may be
in the form of some kind of action, mental and
Variety of responses:
Understanding vs knowledge.
Acceptance vs Rejection.
Remembering vs Forgetting.
Mental vs Physical Action.
This is important as it determines whether or not the
decoder grasped the intended meaning and whether
communication was successful.
Feedback means carrying some significant response of
the audience back to the communicator.
Feedback is source oriented.
Varies in different communication situation.
This is any factor that inhibits the conveyance of a
message. That is, anything that gets in the way of the
message being accurately received, interpreted and
responded to. Noise may be internal or external.
Information which is relevant to a particular set of
audience constitutes the message, otherwise for them
that is noise.
16. A student worrying about an incomplete assignment
may not be attentive in class (internal noise) or the
sounds of heavy rain on a galvanized roof may inhibit
the reading of a storybook to second graders (external
17. Claude Shannon
Born in 1916
Known as the “Father of Information Theory”
1932 –University of Michigan
(1) Electrical engineering (2) Mathematics
1937 – Founding both digital computer and digital circuit
1938 – Master Degree ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology
18. American Mathematician, ”The mathematical theory of
To discover how communication messages could be converted
into electronic signals efficiently
Identify the quickest and most efficient way to get a message
from one point to another
How to transmit signals with a minimum error.
20. Sender : Ryan Gosling
“Come Here, I want To See You.”
Encoder : Telephone (Ryan Gosling)
Channel : Cable
Noise : Distraction in voice
Reception: Telephone (Assistant)
Receiver : Assistant
Received: “I want” only.
Practical Example of Shannon model communication
Claude Elwood shannon
1932 - entered the University of Michigan
– graduated with two bachelor degree namely (1) electrical engineering and (2) mathematics
1937- credited with founding both digital computer & digital circuit design theory
- American Mathematician, who produced an article entitled “The Mathematical theory of communication”
-To discover how communication messages could be converted into electronic signals efficiently
-Identify the quickest and most efficient way to get a message from one point to another
-How to transmit signals with a minimum error.
Due to transmission error or noise, Assistant unable to understand Ryan’s messages.
*The noise which affect the communication flow between them.