i-v characteristics quantum well transmission coefficient depletion width phase velocity absorption coefficient quantum efficiency built-in potential bulk semiconductor density of states effective mass efficiency characteristic impedance phase constant attenuation constant wavelength laplace's equation laplacian body effect applications characteristics current-voltage characteristics advantages range distributed bragg reflector input impedance equivalent circuit poisson's equaiton strong inversion depletion accumulation quantum well laser output power semiconductor laser responsivity electric field depletion capacitance extrinsic fermi level p-n junction diffusion fermi sphere effective density of states degenerate semiconductor landau level quantum hall effect fill factor solar cell link design piezoelectric potential deformation potential ballistic transport carrier scattering poor conductor good conductor skin effect skin depth wave impedance energy poynting's vector relative directions wave equation propagation in conducting medium propagation in dielectric medium free space propagation lorentz force solenoidal property of magnetic field biot-savart law infinite current carrying sheet magnetic field intensity magnetic flux integral form differential form ampere's law solenoidal magnetic vector potential magnetic scalar potential standing wave ratio standing wave reflection coefficient quarter wave transformer double stub stub quarter wave line half wave line full wave line single stub matched line open circuit line short circuit line phase wavelength distortionless transmission line significance of qhe criteria of qhe quantized resistance propagation constant telegrapher's equation distributed line lumped line transmission line polarization charge density atomic polarizability ionic polarization orientation polarization electronic polarization nonpolar dielectric polar dielectric capacitance of earth spherical capacitor cylindrical capacitor parallel-plate capacitor dipole moment torque of dipole electric field of dipole potential of dipole volume charge density surface charge density line charge density uniqueness theorem relaxation time current continuity equation equipotential surface gauss' law electrostatic energy electric field intensity electric flux density electrostatic potential superposition principle coulomb's law green's theorem helmhotz's theorem conservative field gauss' divergence theorem stoke's theorem del operator directional derivative curl of vector divergence of vector gradient of scalar vector transformation scalar transformation spherical coordinate cylindrical coordinate cartesian coordinate coordinate transformation classification of moletronics diode using moletronics switch using moletronics application of moletronics moletronics molecular beam epitaxy liquid phase epitaxy vapor phase epitaxy mocvd chemical vapor deposition ion plating sputtering thermal evaporation physical vapor deposition czocharlski process types of memristor characteristics of memristor relation between fundamental parameters hysteresis in memristor application of memristor working principle of memristor memristance memristor fully depleted mosfet partially depleted mosfet tunnelfet finfet soi mosfet quadruple gate mosfet gate all around mosfet double gate mosfet triple gate mosfet drawbacks schottky barrier coaxial top-gate bottom-up classification of cntfet comparison with mosfet cntfet channel length modulation practical threshold voltage ideal threshold voltage minority carrier concentration n-mosfet p-mosfet channel formation depletion mosfet enhancement mosfet operating principle of set criteria for single electron tunneling criteria for coulomb blockade coulomb gap energy equivalent circuit of set tunneling resistance single electron transistor drain current tunneling rate coulomb blockade coulomb field materials sheet charge density 2deg band engineering modulation doping easki & tsu equation fermi fucntion low electric field low temperature quantum unit of conductance current conductance resonant tunneling application transconductance transfer characteristics static characteristics small-signal parameters features of jfet pinch-off voltage principle of jfet grooved junction solar cell thin film solar cell schottky barrier solar cell tandem solar cell stimulated emission stimulated absorption spontaneous emission radiative recombination population inversion nonradiative recombination emission rate einstein's relation classification of radar minimum range pulse radar mti radar range equation maximum unambiguous range pulse repetition time pulse repetition frequency radar single-hole directional coupler two-hole directional coupler magic tee directional coupler hybrid tee h-plane tee e-plane tee faraday rotation isolator gyrator attenuator circulator isolator application of hbt master equation calculation band diagram of hbt asymmetric potential for carriers lower emitter doping alternative solutions drawbacks of bjt hbt polarization electro-optic modulator phase electro-optic modulator amplitude electro-optic modulator pockels effect acoustic wavelength bragg regime raman-nath regime electro-optic modulator acousto-optic modulator electro-optic effect acousto-optic effect optical modulator anisotropic etching isotropic etching wet etching dry etching etching vane type variable flap type variable variable type attenuator fixed type attenuator microwave attenuator formulation of s matrix features of s matrix transmission loss reflection loss insertion loss return loss lossless network reciprocity scattering matrix image rejection double balanced mixer up and down conversions single-balanced mixer performance parameters fundamental of mixer mixer passive phase shifter active phase shifter variable phase shifter fixed phase shifter digital phase shifter analog phase shifter distributed phase shifter ferrite phase shifter phase shifter depletion mode mesfet enhancement mode mesfet advantages of gaas mesfet max oscillation frequency cut-off frequency mesfet read diode transit-time effect microwave generation reach-through plasma formation avalanche shock-front conversion efficiency field profile trapatt baritt impatt projection printing proximity printing contact printing negative photoresist positive photoresist photoresist photolithography importance of sio2 reaction controlled case diffusion limited case wet oxidation dry oxidation oxidation choice of material interconnect contact gate metallization non-mechanical switch mechanical switch v-groove splicing fusion splicing switch splice connector lsa mode quenched domain mode delayed domain mode transit time mode gunn ocillator negative differential conductivity domain formation intraband transfer gunn diode transferred electron device transferred electron effect existing problems with pic smart pixel array optical spectrum objective of pic photonic integrated circuit types features waveguide omnidirectional mirrors microcavity porous silicon disadvantages material aspect cholesteric smectic nematic phases of lcd working principle lcd advantages of lidar lidar platforms components of lidar operational theory of lidar optical radar lidar noise equivalent power snr avalanche photodiode pin diode threshold voltage variation mobility degradation dielectric breakdown channel-length modulation surface scattering hot electron drain-induced-barrier-lowering impact ionization mosfet short-channel transfer matrix technique wave-vector propagation matrix method quantum dot quantum wire nonparabolic dispersion relation parabolic dispersion relation conduction band eigenstates band nonparabolicity interband transition oscillator strength intraband transition drive-in predeposition standard deviation projected range fick's law ion implantation edge emitting led surface emitting led double heterojunction led distributed feedback laser condition for optical gain double heterojunction laser single heterojunction laser lasing condition multi-level laser current desnity threshold population inversion inverted mode normal mode charge control model ebers-moll model emitter bias voltage-divider bias fixed bias cb mode cc mode ce mode early effect punch-through base-width modualtion gain parameters gain with source resistance output admittance power gain voltage gain current gain hybrid parameters bjt equivalent circuit of ujt applications of triggering devices operation of triac triac diac ujt triggering unstable region scr shockley diode fundamental gate universal gate truth table logic gates cmos point of inversion biased unbiased inversion mos charge variation surface charge surface electric field weak inversion high-frequency curve low-frequency curve depletion approximation capacitance short-circuit current open-circuit voltage temperature shunt resistance series resistance loss factor photovoltaic effect difference between laser and led bulk laser semiconductor led avalanche photodetector p-i-n photodetector p-n photodetector optical detector tunneling current thermionic current depletion region large bandgap valley point peak point tunnel diode oscillator negative differential resistance tunneling criteria tunnel mechanism junction capacitance maximum electric field potential barrier lowering electrical properties metal-semiconductor contact ohmic contact schottky contact avalanche breakdown and zener breakdown voltage regulator zener diode total charge varactor diode diffusion capacitance junction potential linear-graded junction abrupt junction reverse saturation current temperature dependence continuity equation excess carrier generation recombination rate quasi fermi level conductivity matthiessen’s rule diffusion coefficient mobility scattering drift intrinsic carrier concentration extrinsic semiconductor intrinsic semiconductor fermi level current density hall resistance majority carrier mobility majority carrier concentration hall effect indirect bandgap hole direct bandgap nondegenerate semiconductor cyclotron motion quantum hall resistance components of power plant binary cycle plant hot steam plant dry steam plant geothermal power plant geothermal energy double basin single basin barrage neap wave spring wave tidal wave shadow angle inclination angle doppler shift equinox lunar eclipse sun transit outrage solar eclipse satellite tv mesh topology star topology dama pama vsat wind turbine generators site-selection wind farm hawt vawt equation of motion types of winds beaufort scale wind energy two-dimensional electron gas band noonparabolicity multiple quantum well superlattice schrödinger equation ben daniel duke boundary condition broken-gap staggered straddling homostructure heterostructure tdma frame structure c/n in fdma difference between fdma & tdma sdma tdma cdma fdma gasification anaerobic digestion floating gas holder type pyrolysis fixed dome type biofuel biogas biomass cost estimation of p{v array different solar inverters components of pv array absorption scintillation interference faraday effect rain attenuation sidereal day solar day air mass time correction factor equation of time hour angle local solar time evacuated tube collector flat plate collector pv systems different types of solar cell solar array i-v characteristics of solar cell operating principle of solar cell regenerative nonregenerative transponder command tracking telemetry uplink and downlink c/n ratio cascaded arrangement transmission equation satellite communication
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