O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Clostridia.pptx

Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Anúncio
Próximos SlideShares
11. Nanotechnology.pptx
11. Nanotechnology.pptx
Carregando em…3
×

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 20 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Mais recentes (20)

Anúncio

Clostridia.pptx

  1. 1. B A C T E R I A CLOSTRIDIA
  2. 2. An anaerobic bacterium of a large genus of gram- positive, spore-forming bacteria that includes many pathogenic species. They are commonly found in soil, water and sewage, and some are found in GI (gastrointestinal) tract of humans and animals. Vegetative cells are rod shaped and arranged in pairs or short chains. It belong to the family of Clostridiaceae. The majority of species are obligate anaerobes; however, some species can grow under aerobic conditions or are aerotolerant.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATIONS o f C L O S T R I D I A 1 2 3 4 Clostridium sordellii Clostridium perfringens Clostridioides difficile Clostridium botulinum 5 Clostridium tetani
  4. 4. A rare anaerobic, gram- positive, spore-forming rod with peritrichous flagella that is capable of causing pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis. Order: Clostridia Phylum: Firmicutes Family: Clostridiaceae Rank: Species Domain: Bacteria Clostridium sordellii 1
  5. 5. Causes of C. sordellii Infection C. sordellii infection is considered to result from childbirth, abortion, and/or gynecological procedures. Although many strains of C. sordellii are nonpathogenic, virulent toxin-producing strains exist. Symptoms • Tachycardia • Hypotension • Leukocytosis • Hemoconcentration • Weakness, • Vomiting • Abdominal Pain • Diarrhea How it's treated? Early recognition. Aggressive resuscitation from shock. Immediate surgical debridement with hysterectomy. Administration of an antimicrobial active against C sordellii, including. Penicillin. Ampicillin. Macrolide. Clindamycin. Tetracycline. Metronidazole.
  6. 6. Clostridium perfringens bacteria are one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. Mostly found in the intestines of humans and many animals and is present in soil and areas contaminated by human or animal feces. Species: C. perfringens Order: Clostridiales Class: Clostridia Genus: Clostridium Family: Clostridiaceae Phylum: Firmicutes Kingdom: Bacteria Clostridium perfringens 2
  7. 7. Causes of C. perfringens food poisoning When you eat improperly cooked and stored foods. Normally, bacteria are found on food after cooking, and these bacteria can multiply and cause C. perfringens food poisoning if the foods sit out and cool before refrigerating. Commonly infected foods include meats, meat products, and gravy. Symptoms • Intense Abdominal • Cramps Watery Diarrhea How it's treated? You treat C. perfringens food poisoning by managing any complications until it passes. Dehydration caused by diarrhea and vomiting is the most common complication. Do not use medicines, including antibiotics and other treatments, unless your doctor recommends them.
  8. 8. C. difficile, or C. diff, is Gram- positive species of spore-forming bacteria. Clostridioides spp. are anaerobic, motile bacteria, ubiquitous in nature and especially prevalent in soil. Its vegetative cells are rod-shaped, pleomorphic, and occur in pairs or short chains. Scientific name: Clostridioides difficile Higher classification: Clostridioides Family: Peptostreptococcaceae Order: Clostridiales Phylum: Firmicutes Rank: Species Domain: Bacteria Clostridioides difficile 3
  9. 9. Causes of C. difficile Infection Colitis results from a disturbance of the normal bacterial flora of the colon, colonization by C difficile, and the release of toxins that cause mucosal inflammation and damage. Antibiotic therapy is the key factor that alters the colonic flora Symptoms • Watery diarrhea three or more times a day for more than one day • Mild abdominal cramping and tenderness. How it's treated? Antibiotics are the mainstay to treat C. difficile infection. Commonly used antibiotics includes Vancomycin.
  10. 10. A gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum. Species: C. botulinum Phylum: Firmicutes Family: Clostridiaceae Order: Clostridiales Class: Clostridia Genus: Clostridium Clostridium botulinum 4
  11. 11. Causes of Botulism Caused by a toxin that attacks the body's nerves and causes difficulty breathing, muscle paralysis, and even death. This toxin is made by clostridium botulinum. Symptoms • Difficulty swallowing • Muscle weakness • Double vision • Drooping eyelids How it's treated? Doctors treat botulism with a drug called an antitoxin, which prevents the toxin from causing any more harm. Antitoxin does not heal the damage the toxin has already done. Depending on how severe your symptoms are, you may need to stay in the hospital for weeks or even months before you are well enough to go home. • Blurry vision • Slurred speech • Difficulty breathing • Difficulty moving the eyes.
  12. 12. A common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus. Vegetative cells of C. tetani are usually rod-shaped and up to 2.5 μm long, but they become enlarged and tennis racket- or drumstick-shaped when forming spores. Species: C. tetani Genus: Clostridium Order: Clostridiales Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Family: Clostridiaceae C l o s t r i d i u m t e t a n i 5
  13. 13. What causes tetanus? Tetanus is an infection caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. Spores of tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust, and manure. The spores develop into bacteria when they enter the body. Symptoms How it's treated? Tetanus is typically treated with a variety of therapies and medications, such as: • Cleaning the wound • Antibiotics e.G. Penicillin • Tetanus immune globulin (TIG) • Muscle relaxers • Tetanus vaccine • Difficulty swallowing • Spasms • Stiffness in various muscles, especially those in your jaw, abdomen, chest, back, and neck.
  14. 14. 3 1 2 Asymmetric septation divides the cell, generating small compartment and mother cell. 4 The mother cell engulfs the small compartment (forespore). Formation of the spore cortex and coat layers. Lyses of the mother cell and the release of the spore.
  15. 15. If proper conditions are met, a clostridium spore will germinate into its vegetative form. This vegetative cell, will enter its growth phase and replicate by binary fission. After its growth, the bacteria will then start its spore formation, producing solvents in the case of C. acetobutylicum or toxin in the case of C. perfringens. The spore will then mature and the cycle will be completed at the germination of this spore.
  16. 16. POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION NEGATIVE CONTRIBUTION
  17. 17. THANK YOU! GROUP MEMBERS: • Colcol, Rinz Alfred • Cuesta, Karla • Francis, Llessandra • Pasiliao, Clarence • Vidal, Joanna Mae • Villaseñor, Scherwayne

×