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  2. 2. What is Actinobacteria?
  3. 3. -These are group of the Gram positive bacteria with great guanine and their DNA is consisting of cytosine. -It is unicellular like bacteria that can produce a mycelium wherein it is non-septate and more slender. -It commonly has an aerobic respiration and it can also be anaerobic. -A filamentous bacteria -It looks like a powdery uniformity and a firm stick upon the agar surface. It also a spherical shape and others are branched while some are in hair- like projection Actinobacteria
  4. 4. -Actinobacteria is not reproducing sexually, but, they reproduce through fragmentation or production of spores. Actinobacteria produces mycelium. And mycelia are made up numerous hyphae or filaments and that make up structure of bacteria. Mycelia are reproduce by fragmentation in which splits into two that will form into a functioning mycelia. Reproduction of Actinobacteria
  5. 5. -The cell cycle of Actinobacteria from the germination of spores in which it leads to the growth of mycelia or substrate mycelium. And as the mycelium grown it will form reproductive aerial hyphae. As the aerial hyphae grow it will undergo cooling. After all the cooling the chromosomes will segregate and the sporulation specific septum will form and the spore will undergo spores maturation as the spores dispersal will going to happen. and all in all, the cycle will repeat from the starts until dispersal. Cell cycle of Actinobacteria
  6. 6. -They commonly live in universal soil, freshwater and in marine ecosystem -Actinobacteria are also found and distributed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. -It plays the role of recovering biomaterials through decomposition of the complex materials towards the dead organisms specifically in animals and plants. Habitat of Actinobacteria
  8. 8. Cell Wall and Membranes of Actinobacteria • Gram-positive cell wall • Comprised of a plasma membrane and a thick peptidoglycan layer. Mycolic acids are thought to be the main component of the outer membrane, which is composed of many additional lipids trehalose dimycolate, also known as cord factor
  9. 9. General Characteristics of Actinobacteria Comprises a group of branching unicellular microorganisms, most of which are aerobic-forming mycelium known as substrate and aerial. They produce binary fission or by producing spores or conidia, and sporulation through fragmentation and segmentation. Morphological appearance is compact, often leathery, giving conical appearance with a dry surface on culture media and frequently covered with aerial mycelium. Appearance of Actinobacteria. (A&C) Plate view of the Actinobacterial isolates. (B&D)Morphology of individual colonies.
  10. 10. Aerial mycelium Usually thicker than the substrate mycelium Shows sufficient differentiation that a miscellaneous assortment of isolates can be segregated into a number of groups having similar morphological characteristics under fixed condition Substrate mycelium Its color ranges from white or virtually colorless to yellow, brown, pink, orange, green, or black. Varies in size, shape, and thickness.
  12. 12. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Mycobacterium aerobic, non-endospore forming rods. Acid-fast staining, drug resistance, and pathogenicity structurally bit similar to gram-negative bacteria. outermost lipopolysaccharide layer in mycobacteria is replaced by mycolic acids, which form a wax, water resistant layer. This makes the bacteria resistant to stresses such as drying
  13. 13. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  14. 14. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Streptomyces They are found in the soil, where they cycling of carbon trapped in insoluble organic debris from plants and fungi. Streptomyes also form conidia, which are produced in chains from spore-bearing aerial hyphae. It produces secondary metabolites such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics.
  15. 15. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Streptomyces Streptomyes griseus
  16. 16. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Frankia Belong to the group of Actinomycetes. Able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia via the enzyme Nitrogenase, a process known as nitrogen fixation. They are symbiotic organisms. Cause nitrogen-fixing nodules (filamentous bacteria) to form in alder tree roots, such as rhizobia cause nodules on the roots of legumes in the Fabaceae family
  17. 17. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Frankia
  18. 18. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Nocardia Belongs to the roup of Actinomycetes These bacteria are aerobic To reproduce, they form rudimentary filaments, which fragment into short rod. Their cell wall resembles of mycobacteria They are catalase-positive organisms. Majority of Actinomyces possess the cord factor.
  19. 19. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Nocardia Nocardia asteriodes
  20. 20. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Gardnerella Describe as Gram variable but has a Gram-positive wall type. Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative anaerobic bacterium and the only species of this genus. G. vaginalis is strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis, a disease characterized by malodorous vaginal discharge, but it also occurs frequently in the vaginal microbiota of healthy individuals.
  21. 21. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Gardnerella Gardnerella vaginalis
  22. 22. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Corynebacteruim Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore forming They are bacilli (rod shaped), and in some phases they are more of club-shaped. Grow slowly, even on enriched media. Commonly found in nature in soil, water, plants, and food products Corynebacterium diphtheriae, can cause human infection diphtheria, or acute, contagious infection.
  23. 23. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Corynebacteruim Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  24. 24. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Propionibacterium Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped genus of bacteria named after their unique metabolism. synthesize propionic acid by using unusual transcarboxylase enzymes. Its members are primarily facultative parasites and commensals of humans and other animals. widely used in the production of Vitamin B¹², tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid, as well as in the probiotics and cheese industries
  25. 25. ACTINOBACTERIA -Genus Propionibacterium Propionibacterium acnes
  26. 26. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Micromonospora They are gram-positive, spore-forming, generally aerobic. This bacterium lives in different environments such as soil and water, and are saprotrophic (feeds on dead, organic matter). it is used in medicines as a secondary metabolite and studies have also shown that they are useful in plant growth and development.
  27. 27. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Micromonospora Micromonospora endophytica
  28. 28. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Tropheryma It is rod-shaped and non-motile. This bacterium is gram- positive and soil-dwelling It has the size of 1.0–2.5 µm in length and 0.2–0.25 µm in width. Its cell wall is thick and has an atypical envelope. This bacterium is the primary cause of Whipple’s disease (T. whipplei) which is characterized by intestinal malabsorption leading to cachexia and death. Basically, it targets the human intestines.
  29. 29. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Tropheryma Tropheryma whipplei
  30. 30. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Salinispora First actinobacterium to require saltwater to grow. It also produces secondary metabolites that is essential in the pharmaceutical industry. It is the aquatic counterpart of micromonospora. Salinispora tropica
  31. 31. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Gordonia This bacterium is aerobic and catalase positive, forming rods and cocci. It is also gram-positive to gram-variable It is commonly found in the soil but some are also found in sewage treatment plantations.
  32. 32. - Genus Gordonia ACTINOBACTERIA Gordona bronchialis
  33. 33. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Rhodococcus This bacterium is aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, partially acid-fast, nonmotile actinomycetes. it can be rod-shaped or it can also grow as an extensively branched substrate hyphae. Rhodococcus can produce metabolites such as carotenoids, biosurfactants, and bioflocculation agents.
  34. 34. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Rhodococcus Rhodococcus rhodochrous
  35. 35. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Leifsonia They are gram-positive, non-spore-forming, irregular rod- or filament-shaped, motile, mesophilic, catalase-positive bacteria. It contains dl-2,4-diaminobutyric acid in their peptidoglycan layer.
  36. 36. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Leifsonia Leifsonia xylii
  37. 37. ACTINOBACTERIA - Genus Bifidobacteria This bacterium has different shapes such as curved, short, and bifurcated Y shapes. Its cells have no capsule and they are non-spore-forming, nonmotile, and nonfilamentous bacteria. It has probiotic features such as induction of immunoglobulin production, anticarcinogenic activity, and many more.
  38. 38. - Genus Bifidobacteria ACTINOBACTERIA Bifidobacterium lactis
  39. 39. ACTINOBACTERIA Genus Thermobifida They are rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, chemo- organotrophic (use oxygen as an energy source) aerobic organisms. They are found in decaying organic matter. They decompose cellulose and lignocellulose residues, which will breakdown urban and agricultural wastes.
  40. 40. ACTINOBACTERIA Genus Thermobifida Thermobifida fusca
  42. 42. IMPORTANCE OF ACTINOBACTERIA Actinobacteria are found in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats and are identified as potential bioremediation agents among environmental microorganisms. They are considered as invaders in nature and they also help in the recycling of refractory biomaterials through humus production and degradation. Actinobacteria also has the ability to digest organic and inorganic contaminants and this ability was utilized in cleaning pesticide and heavy metal contaminated sites.
  43. 43. IMPORTANCE OF ACTINOBACTERIA They are important for improving fertility in soil. Some Actinobacteria produce Enzymes, Antibiotics, Inhibitors and various biochemically important compounds. Some species form symbiotic associations with plant roots. Used as secondary fermenters during Swiss cheese production
  44. 44. IMPORTANCE OF ACTINOBACTERIA They have the ability to degrade a wide range of hydrocarbons, pesticides, and aliphatic and aromatic compounds. They perform microbial transformation of organic compounds, a field of great commercial value. Have potential for use in bio conversation of underutilized agricultural and urban wastes into high- value chemical products. Produce Enzyme inhibitors useful for cancer treatment and Immuno modifiers that enhance immune response
  46. 46. Diseases caused by Actinobacteria Some species are extremely pathogens, and some are oppurtunistic pathogens, both of them cause diseases for humans and animals NEGATIVE EFFECT OF ACTINOBACTERIA
  47. 47. SOURCES https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/actinobacteria https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294705164_An_Introduction_to_Actinobacteria https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.mdpi.com/2079- 6382/10/5/483/pdf&ved=2ahUKEwielOyuvYD0AhVTa94KHUb2D_oQFnoECCIQAQ&usg=AOvVaw2nbEKB0P-2EaQNeHn1gd2h https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/An-Introduction-to-Actinobacteria-Anandan- Dharumadurai/398b85f71266c1950018b3010e7a7496b42755d6&ved=2ahUKEwielOyuvYD0AhVTa94KHUb2D_oQFnoECCMQAQ&usg=AOvVaw1LBkWRMffsdpwhxmeakb-M https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://journals.asm.org/doi/pdf/10.1128/MMBR.00019- 15&ved=2ahUKEwielOyuvYD0AhVTa94KHUb2D_oQFnoECAoQAQ&usg=AOvVaw2ITMU9J1tWsIj3fnoq-7zQ https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-020-0379- y.pdf%3Forigin%3Dppub&ved=2ahUKEwielOyuvYD0AhVTa94KHUb2D_oQFnoECA0QAQ&usg=AOvVaw1Cfs_7eUEl6V-YrNw5P6lw https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/3506/actinobacteria-in-special-and-extreme-habitats-diversity-function-roles-and-environmental- adaptation#:~:text=Actinobacteria%20are%20highly%20diverse%20prokaryotes,soil%2C%20freshwater%20and%20marine%20ecosystems. https://www.nps.gov/articles/actinobacteria.htm#:~:text=Reproduction,the%20structure%20of%20the%20bacteria. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/49873 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711186