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Genomic sequencing a sub-disciplinary branch of genetics and difference between the two sequencers used to sequence the genome basically automated sequencer and fluorescence sequencers and its applications.
GENOMICS AS A SUB DISCPLINARY
ANALYSIS OF GENOME
DIFFERENCE B/W GENETICS
looks at a single
gene where as
all the genes of entire
system in a broader
• It deals with the Study of
functional and structural
aspects of genome aiding
Determination of complete
sequence and gene map.
regulation of gene
expression ; metabolic
Compares genes from
different genomes to
relate functional and
INA E/K , DNA OR RNA OR
IT IS DENOTEDAS ‘X’.NUMBEROF PLOIDYOF AN ORGANISM.
EXAMPLE :- DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER (2n=2X=8)GENOME
TRITICUMAESTIVUM (6n=6X=42)GENOME :- X=7
TO DENOTE COMPLETE SET OF CHROMOSOMALAND
EXTRACHROMOSOMALGENES IN ALL ORGANISM INCLUDING
Is a technique that allows researchers to read
the genetic information found in the DNA of
anything from bacteria to plant to animals.
It basically involves “determination of order
of bases ”.
Position of every gene along the
chromosome, regulatory gene that flank each
gene, the coding sequence that determines
the protein produce by each gene.
WHY SEQUENCE GENOME ? ? ?
WHY SEQUENCE GENOME ? ? ?
DISTINGUISH B/W GENOMES OF FLORA AND FAUNA ,
ANDTHEN GROUPTHEMTOWHICH FIELDTHEY
SERVES AS A MEANS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT AND
DEVELOP CONVENTIONAL BREEDING PRACTICESTO
DEVELOP AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES.
IT CAN ALSO BE USEDTO PRODUCE SUFFICIENT
AMOUNT OF SAFE AND NUTRITIOUS FOOD DURING
INCREASE POPULATION DEMAND.
HELP RESEARCHES OR PRODUCERS (FARMERS) IN
DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIP B/W STRESS AND
THEYIELD POTENTIALTHUS HELPING IN IMPROVING
SEQUENCING OF OTHER ORGANISM
The sequence of many organisms have been carried
out at a rapid pace
There are many medical ; genetics ; and commercial
reasons for sequencing genomes of other organisms
Arabidopsis thaliana(Thale / Mouse ear cress)
Oryza sativa L. (Rice)
Mus musculus(laboratory mouse)
• First automated sequence was
invented by Llyod. M.Smith.
• It uses the Sangers sequence
method and formed the basis of
first generation of Dna sequences.
• The 1st automated sequencer was
AB370A which was able to
sequence 96 samples
simultaneously with 500-600kb in
• Later in 1955 AB310 took over and
completed the ‘’ human genome
project “ in 2001
• The manufactures of this sequencer
are Roche , Illumina ,Life
coulter,Pacific biosciences and
• It is basically radio active
• The electrophoretic bands gets
activated by scanning laser.
• The colour is read by and then
the computer assembles the
images as electropherograms
• They analyse the resulting
electropherograms giving the
output as four colour
• There are many software tools
which are optimized for
sequencing the data like
preassemble ,seqtrace etc.
SEQUENCER• Since it was radio active in
nature there were disposable
problems and health risks
• Hence fluorescence sequencer
used fluorescent dyes .
• Sequencing products are
electrophoresed and they use
laser to detect fragments.
• Incorporation of randomly
labelled ddNTPs produces a
series of fragment in which
chain growth has been
terminated at each successive
• Each nucleotide will be longer
than the previous one.
• Separation of fragments for
determining the order by size in
the form of ladder and as a
series of coloured band.
• Polyphred is a software tool.
As of september 2007, complete
sequence was known :
577 bacterial species
Approx 23 E/K species (mostly half are viruses)
Brown B,Aoran M (2001)The rise of modern
C.A Graham and A.J.M Hill, vol 167: Dna sequencing
Bishop, J.E &Waldholz M.Genome (Simon and
Schuster New york,1990),p109-117
Aoran MThe future of genomics ,proceedings of the
genomics researchers,boston (e-book)