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EGYPT CIVILIZATION

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Egypt Culture And Costume
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EGYPT CIVILIZATION

  1. 1. History of Clothing End-term Jury Assignment Submitted By: AnchalKumari BD/19/4691 FD-5
  2. 2. Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
  3. 3. The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.
  4. 4. A major contributor to late Neolithic art, Egyptian culture is probably the best known form of ancient art in the Mediterranean basin, before the advent of Greek civilization (c.600 BCE). Ancient Egyptian architecture, for example, is world famous for the extraordinary Egyptian Pyramids, while other features unique to the art of Ancient Egypt include its writing script based on pictures and symbols (hieroglyphics), and its meticulous hieratic style of painting and stone carving. Egyptian civilization was shaped by the geography of the country as well as the political, social and religious customs of the period. Protected by its desert borders and sustained by the waters of the Nile, Egyptian arts and crafts developed largely unhindered (by external invasion or internal strife) over many centuries. The Pharaoh (originally meaning 'palace') was worshipped as a divine ruler (supposedly the incarnation of the god Horus), but typically maintained firm control through a strict bureaucratic hierarchy,whose members were often appointed on merit. EGYPTIAN ART
  5. 5. The function of Egyptian art was twofold. First, to glorify the gods - including the Pharaoh - and facilitate human passage into the after-life. Second, to assert, propagandize and preserve the values of the day. Due to the general stability of Egyptian life and culture, all arts - including architecture and sculpture, as well as painting, metalwork and goldsmithing - were characterized by a highly conservative adherence to traditional rules, which favored order and form over creativity and artistic expression. Decorative arts included the first examples of Nail Art.
  6. 6. Egyptian textiles during the Dynastic Era (3100 BCE–300 BCE) were primarily linen, although wool was not unknown. (Cotton and silk were introduced only later.) Linen was produced in three basic grades: royal or fine linen, thin cloth, and smooth cloth. Production of royal linen, the highest grade, was a palace monopoly. Its manufacture took place both in the royal palace and in workshops associated with state temples. These workshops were supervised from the royal harem and were obligated to provide specific amounts of linen annually for use in the royal household and in temple rituals. Presumably it was this highest grade of linen that was also used in international trade. As is often the case, much of our knowledge of the processes for textile production, use, and care is derived from scenes portrayed in the funerary art of the social elite and tomb models showing textile workshops, coupled with the study of surviving textile examples (and Egypt’sdry climate has helped to preserve. EGYPTIAN TEXTILE
  7. 7. The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these were predominant. The important gods had a cult center where their principal temple was located. One of the most important was Ra, the sun god, understandably critical to an agricultural society. They believed in a life after death. They referred to this as the “next world,” and thought it was somewhere to the West. They developed elaborate burials and embalming to preserve the body for this second life. Goods and servants were buried with royalty and nobles to serve them. RELIGION AND CULTURE
  8. 8. The three biggest pyramids (Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, c. 26th century BCE) making up the Giza pyramid complex are one of the most iconic sights on the planet. Constructed from millions of perfectly cut limestone blocks stacked on bedrock, the sacred pyramid shapes were made to house the remains of pharaohs. The word pyramid comes from ancient Greek pyramis. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyph for the structure is mr (pronounced “mer”). The smaller pyramids in the complex housed the remains of queens. ARCHITECTURE
  9. 9. The earliest Egyptian structures were created from simple mud bricks—Nile clay and sand mixed with other ingredients like straw and dried in the Egyptian sun. In fact, the first tombs built during the Old Kingdom were made from these modest bricks. They are called mastaba (“stone bench”) in Arabic because of their flat tops and sloping sides. The first pyramid (c. 2667-2648 BCE) was the Pyramid of Djoser, made of six brick mastabas stacked on top of each other. The Egyptians used a post and lintel system to create elaborate buildings, like the Temple of Karnak with its stout pillars supporting massive stone slabs.
  10. 10. It’s been hundredsof thousands of years since the first simple jewelery pieces were crafted from seashells, bone, and animal skin. In the years since our ancestors first left the African continent, Egypthasbecome a dominant civilization in ancient history. They were empowered by advances in technology,and access to gemstones and precious metals. They were inspired by the culture of royalty and nobles who had a deep appreciation for luxury and it wasn’t long before they becamethe leading force in manufacturing jewelry and creating long lasting trends. ORNAMENTS
  11. 11. The ancient Egyptians valued personal adornment highly and Egyptianjewelery was worn by women and men, and of all social classes.Their statues of gods and kings were decked with lavish jewels.The deceased were adorned in jewelry for their send off into the afterlife. All types of Egyptian jewelery were popular,including bracelets,earrings,collar pieces, anklets, armbands,and rings.Golden jewelery became a status symbol in pre- dynastic Egypt. It was a symbol of power, religion, and status. In addition to gold and materials commonly found throughout Egypt,other materials were imported. The favoured material for the EgyptianScarab was Lapis Lazuli, a semi-precious stone. High grade Egyptian jewelry was a majorly desired trade item in the ancient world. Their craftsmanship was found acrossterritories including Turkey, Rome, ancient Persia, and Greece. The Egyptian nobility favored bracelets,necklaces, amulets,pendants,belts, and hair beads. They loved pieces that had been designed with scrolls, tigers, scarab beetles, winged birds,jackals, antelopes,and tigers. One of the more interesting materials that was commonly used is coloured glass.It was
  12. 12. Materials and Metals The predominant materials used to craft Egyptianjewelry were gold and copper. The masses could afford the copper, with the nobility opting for gold. Both were mined in Nubian deserts and in abundant supply. Silver is very rarely uncovered in excavations through Egypt- any use of it was due to its importation, as silver wasn’t available in ancient Egypt.Jewelers would use gold that came in shadesof grey, to reddish brown, and rose. The colour variation was due to the mixing of elementssuch ascopper, iron, or silver into the gold. Gems & Stones The more lavish pieces of Egyptian jewelry were inlaid with semiprecious stones and various gems. The most prized stones were, as mentioned above, lapis lazuli, as well as obsidian, garnet, rock crystal, and carnelian. Pearls and emeraldswere the most commonly uses stones native to Egypt.Although,faience was also used commonly.This was made from ground quartz and then mixed with a colorant that was heated and then moulded to mimic more natural and expensive stones. The most popular of which was a blue-green shade made to imitate turquoise.
  13. 13. Typesof Jewelery Perhaps the most iconic ornament from ancient Egypt is the wide collar necklace. It was generally made of beaded rows and shaped like flowers or animals. The collar was stretched over the wearer from breast to collarbone. It was also common for pendants to be strung on beaded necklaces, bearing an amulet of protection. Both men and women wore earrings, and rings were also popular for men and women. Egyptian Amulets Amulets in Ancient Egypt were both decorativeand practical,as they were considered as having apotropaicpowers to protect or bestow power upon the wearer. Not only worn by the living, amulets have been found inside the wrappingsof mummies, as they were used to prepare the deceased for the afterlife. Amulets held different meanings, depending on their type or form. Small amulets depicting gods and goddesses seem to have induced the protective powers of the deity. On the other hand, small representationsof anatomical features or creatures suggest that the wearer required protection over a specific body part, or that he/she desired the skills of a particularanimal.Amulets depicting animalswere very common in the Old Kingdom Period, whilst representationsof deities gained popularityin the MiddleKingdom.
  14. 14. Animals Cobra Fly Hare Lion Scarab Vulture
  15. 15. Body parts Heart Foliageand Flowers Tools and Misc. Djed Pillar Wadj Sceptre Cowroid Shell Daisy Lotus
  16. 16. CONTEMPORARY FASHION FROM EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION Egypt is a country of kingship and divinity. Ancient Egyptians loved fashionable clothes and other accessories. Clothing style was simple and elegant. They took a lot of care in grooming their appearance, and their garments were designed, crafted, and worn with great thought and care. Their clothing style gave them a unique cultural look in history. Egyptians designed their clothes to be light weight so as to suit the hot climate of the country. Most of their clothes were made from plant fibres. They wore clothes made of linen throughout the hot weather. In today's world, fads come and go for every season. But in the 3000 year old Egyptian history, fashion changed very little. During the Old Kingdom, people wore simple garments that did not require much sewing. Men and women mostly wore draped clothes, held in place by knots in the fabric, and waist belts. Their clothes were mostly white. Creme-da-le-crme people of the society wore long, pleated, and see-through robes. During the New Kingdom, fashion became more modernized, with elaborate pleats and fringes sewn in tunics and other garments. Their clothes became more decorated and complex. Clothes with intricate embroidery made its debut. During this period, the Egyptians were influenced by the fashion brought by Assyrians, Greeks and Persians.
  17. 17. Men from the 'pyramid land' were more fashion conscious than the women of their times. From the drawings, and fabric pieces found in tombs and other places, it is been found that men wore more than forty different types of garments. Men's fashion of the Old Kingdom consisted of a knee-length kilt. They were rectangular in shape, and knotted or fastened with a buckle at the waist. Kilts served various purposes, like indicating the age, and social position of the wearer. Over the kilts, men wore long pleated skirts with a pleated apron, decorated with a fringed sash. Robes were used in various designs, long and flowing. The New Kingdom fashion changed the look of Egyptian men. Application of dyes on clothes brought more colorful linen garments. Their kilt was elaborately fringed and pleated. Sashes and aprons were added to their attire to give them a complete 'fashionable' look. MEN’SATTIRE
  18. 18. Women's clothing was 'form fitting'. A unique and refined fashion, delicate and choosy for an even and slim female figure was in vogue. In the Old Kingdom, women wore long skirts with fringed robes and pleats which was wrapped around their waists, pulled over their shoulders and secured under their chest with a knot. In the period of New Kingdom, fashion for women changed by the usage of colorful linen in their clothes. Their simple tube dresses were adorned by elaborate pleated and fringed robe worn over the dress. Women wore long robes parted in the middle to expose their legs. Wealthy women decorated their garments with embroidery, sequins, feathers, and rosettes. Wealthier the class, more transparent their dress were. WOMEN’SATTIRE
  19. 19. It is a universal fact that fashion designers of the modern day get their inspiration from the past. Egyptian fashion is an apt example of this. Visualizing the Egyptian era, and comparing it with the modern fashion, one may see many similarities. The black kohl eyeliner used by ancient Egyptians to darken and highlight their eyes, are showcased today by both male and female models in the ramp shows. Models are seen strolling down the runways of prominent international fashion shows displaying trendy garments designed with an inspiration of elegant Egyptian clothing. Pleating and draping was a popular style followed by Egyptians. INFLUENCEOFEGYPTIANATTIRE ONMODERNFASHION
  20. 20. The ancient attire of straight fitting with shoulder straps that was tied behind the neck of shoulders is now one of the most popular silhouettes in the recent fashion. Egyptian tunic style dresses and tops with belting in the waist are now being sought after by most women. High waistlines that were popular in Egyptian times are seen in fashion currently through the revival of baby doll dresses. Lightweight linen clothes worn during ancient times are followed even today. In the current day's trend, many Egyptian motives are used. The hieroglyphics (ancient Egyptian letters), sphinxes, lotus flowers and scarab (a beetle associated with Egyptian god Kepera) are seen in dresses, and other fashion related accessories also. Egyptian style is adopted more strongly in US and in Europe. Egyptian influence in costumes is seen in the garment styles and also in the embroideries that adorned the garments. Its influence in fashion exists quite predominantly. While the fashion of ancient Egypt is thousands of years old, modern day fashion is much inspired by its ancient clothing styles. Modern day fashions have taken a twist on the ancient clothing styles of Egypt, and will undoubtedly continue in the years to come.
  21. 21. Gods of Egypt Movie Gods of Egypt is a 2016 fantasy action film directed by Alex Proyas based on the ancient Egyptian deities. Synopsis & Plot In this spectacular action-adventure inspired by the classic mythology of Egypt, the survival of mankind hangs in the balance as an unexpected mortal hero Bek (Brenton Thwaites) undertakes a thrilling journey to save the world and rescue his true love. In order to succeed, he must enlist the help of the powerful god Horus (Nikolaj Coster-Waldau) in an unlikely alliance against Set (Gerard Butler), the merciless god of darkness, who has usurped Egypt's throne, plunging the once peaceful and prosperous empire into chaos and conflict. As their breathtaking battle against Set and his henchmen takes them into the afterlife and across the heavens, both god and mortal must pass tests of courage and sacrifice if they hope to prevail in the epic final confrontation. MOVIEBASED ON EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
  22. 22. ILLUSTRATIONS
  23. 23. Thank you

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