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Fungi Lab PPT.pdf

  1. Fungi
  2. Kingdom Fungi • A unique group of organisms that are heterotrophic by absorptive means • Secrete enzymes across their cell wall and absorb smaller organic compounds
  3. Kingdom fungi • Eukaryotic, multicellular, absorptive heterotroph • Decomposers • Fungi secrete enzymes that break down organic matter outside their bodies; They then absorb the nutrients. • Cell walls made of CHITIN • Classified based on the presence and types of sexual structures
  4. Kingdom Fungi Two Types Saprotrophs/saprophyte: feed on dead matter Parasites: feed on the tissues of other animals or plants - athletes foot - ringworm - thrush
  5. Ecological significance • Some fungi are harmful, but many are beneficial • Decomposers—break down dead plants and animals and return inorganic nutrients back to plants; Fungi in the forest that decay wood play an important role in the carbon cycle • Food source • Fermentation by yeasts—baking bread, brewing beer, making wine
  6. Fungal Phylogeny Movement onto land Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Glomeromycetes (160 species) Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) Hyphae 25 m 25 m Fungal hypha
  7. Fungal diversity • 5 phyla • Chytridiomycota—swimming spores—have flagella • Ascomycota—spores in sacs—make antibiotics • Basidiomycota—spores on club-like structures— mushrooms and club fungi • Glomeromycota—no sexual spores—symbiosis with plants • Zygomycota—zygospores—bread mold, Rhizopus
  8. Fungal Anatomy Chitin: cell walls of fungi are reinforced with this major support compound Spores: reproductive structure of fungi
  9. Fungal Anatomy
  10. All fungal bodies are made of hyphae forming a mass called the Mycelium
  11. Mycelium-a mass of hyphae
  12. Nutritional Mode: Heterotrophs nutrients Extracellular Digestion
  13. Terminology • Hyphae • Mycelium
  14. Terminology Sporocarp – Fruiting body of the fungus that produces the spores. • Each of the phyla are distinguish by the types of spores and sporocarps Basidocarp Ascocarp Zygomycota
  15. Chytridomycota (Chytrids) • Thought to be the most ancient group • Once grouped within Protista • Aquatic • Zoospores: flagellated spores • Asexual or sexual • Parasitize protists, plants, and animals
  16. Zygomycota (Zygote Fungi) • Considered the 1st fungi to colonize terrestrial habitats • Can reproduce sexually or asexually • Asexual reproduction occurs through sporangiospores
  17. Zygomycota (zygomycetes) • Most common method of reproduction is with ball like sporangia which produce spores through meiosis • Commonly called mold • Rhizopus (genus)
  18. Zygomycota (zygomycetes)
  19. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) • Mushrooms, Shelf Fungi, Puffballs, Rusts • Long lived mycelium stage • Sexual reproduction: • Occurs in the fruiting body known as the basidiocarp • Produces basidiospores • Contains mychorrizae
  20. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) The massive amounts of hyphae/mycelium can obtain lots of energy, so quick production of the fruiting bodies occurs in optimal conditions
  21. Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) • Sexually basidiospores on club-shaped hyphae • Largest and most conspicuous • Mushrooms, toadstools, shelf fungi, puff ball fungi • Decompose wood/plant material
  22. Phylum Basidiomycota Coprinus mushroom
  23. Anatomy of a typical Basidiomycota (Mushroom) Cap Gills Stalk
  24. Shelf Fungus
  25. Amanita
  26. Fairy Rings
  27. Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) • Can reproduce sexually and asexually • Asci: • Saclike structure that produces sexual spores • Ascocarps: • Fruiting bodies where the asci are found • Conidia: • Spores produced by specialized hyphae that allow for asexual reproduction
  28. Ascomycota (ascomycetes) • Sexually ascospores in ascocarps; “sac fungi” Yeasts Morels Truffles
  29. Ascomycota (ascomycetes) Also called “sac fungi” Asci- usually contain 8 ascospores, produces by meiosis Hymenium
  30. Mychorrizae (Not a taxonomic group) • Symbiosis • Mutualism with Basidiomycota • Enhance the nutrient absorption of plant roots w/ extensive hyphae. • Fungi receives organic nutrients synthesized by the plant
  31. Lichens (Not a taxonomic group) • Symbiotic relationship between a fungus (usually Ascomycete) and photosynthetic cell (either an algae or cyanobacteria) • Fungus houses algae and collects nutrients, in return uses some of the energy produced by photosynthesis
  32. Lichen Anatomy
  33. Lichens 3 types: crustose: looks like crust on tree bark foliose: looks like leaf material on bark fruticose: look like miniature shrubs
  34. Lichen: Foliose
  35. Lichens: Crustose
  36. Lichens: Fruticose
  37. 3 types of lichens on the same tree
  38. Today’s lab • Look at representatives of different phyla from the fungi kingdom • Understand the differences between the phyla • Be able to identify different parts of fungal anatomy