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Introduction to la unit 1

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Introduction to la unit 1

  1. 1. Introduction to Landscape Architecture A PRESENTATION BY Ar. ALISHA SINHA Unit 1
  2. 2. What is Landscape ?  All the visible features of an area of land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal.  The ‘Land Characteristics’ of a particular region. 1
  3. 3. Elements of Landscape  Vegetation  Topography  Pavements  Furniture  Non-furniture hardscapes  Water bodies  Fences and Edges  Lighting 2 DESIGN Landscape Architecture
  4. 4. Landscape Architecture  Landscape Architecture is the design process of turning an outdoor space into a functional, practical and aesthetic space that complements the building design as a whole.  It is a design profession which combines art, science and technology to propose meaningful and thoughtful change to the built environment. It is the art and practice of designing the outdoor environment. 3
  5. 5. Principles of Landscape Architecture
  6. 6. Principles of Landscape Architecture Colour 4 Colour brings a garden to life by adding dimension and interest. It can be added with plant material or hardscapes, such as paving, walls or fences. Functional importance of colour:  To draw attention to an important feature (fountain, tree, sculpture, etc.) – can be done using bold, warm contrast colours.  To blend the outdoors with the colors of the home – can be done using cool, similar or nude colours.  To attract wildlife – can be done using bold colours.  To provide seasonal variety.  To create a mood.
  7. 7. Principles of Landscape Architecture Lines and Curves 5 Lines refer to the structures within a landscape—the edges of a walkway or flower bed, or the perimeter of a patio or deck. The way line is employed will greatly impact the flow of a garden. Functional importance of lines and curves:  To divide or connect a space in the form of pathways, hedges, flower beds etc.  To direct the attention of the viewer to a focal point.  Vertical lines are mostly used to pull the eye up and make a space feel larger. Tall trees or an arbor can be used to add vertical lines to a space.  Horizontal lines make a space feel bigger by pulling the eye along the ground.
  8. 8. Principles of Landscape Architecture6  Minimalist gardens use mostly straight lines.  Very formal in character.  Lines such as those found in a straight hedge or the edges of paving materials suggest quick, direct movement.  Angled lines can create opportunities for creating the "bones or the framework of the landscape". Lines Curves  Romantic themed landscapes use sweeping curved lines to separate areas from each other.  Informal in their character mostly.  In curvilinear design, lines are dramatic, and very expressive in their shape.  Curvilinear, meandering lines suggest a naturalistic look that invites the user to casually stroll through and experience the landscape.
  9. 9. Principles of Landscape Architecture Texture 7 Plant texture refers to the fineness or coarseness, roughness or smoothness, heaviness or lightness of a particular plant. However, texture can also be created using hardscape materials. It is both visual and tactile. . Functional importance of texture:  To bring variety to a space.
  10. 10. Principles of Landscape Architecture Form 8 The form of a landscape refers to the shape of the elements contained within it. Forms in a landscape can be: Informal gardens have softer silhouettes and are free flowing. Formal gardens can be recognized by their clipped hedges and pruned plants that give each part of the garden a definite silhouette. UPRIGHT OVAL COLUMNAR SPREADING UPRIGHT BROAD SPREADING WEEPING
  11. 11. Principles of Landscape Architecture Scale 9 In outdoor design, scale refers to the size relationship between elements within the garden and the surrounding spaces. When planning a landscape along with the colours and form of plants, it is also important to keep in mind their scale. Scale is important in making sure that the landscape design complements the architecture of the structure and doesn’t overshadow it.
  12. 12. Principles of Landscape Architecture Balance 10  Balance in landscape can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical.  Formal gardens follow a symmetrically balanced scheme while informal residential gardens usually follow an asymmetrical scheme.  In formal balance, the mass/ weight/number of objects on either side of the central axis should be exactly the same. Plants are frequently clipped, lines tend to be straight, and edges are clearly defined.  For asymmetrical balance, plants should be irregularly placed on either side of an imaginary axis so that the mass or weight on either side of the axis appears to be balanced
  13. 13. Principles of Landscape Architecture11 Rhythm Repetition
  14. 14. Principles of Landscape Architecture12 Variety Grouping/ Mass
  15. 15. Scope and Application of Landscape Architecture
  16. 16. Scope of Landscape Architecture13 Landscape Architecture shares permeable boundaries with other disciplines like engineering, art, urban planning and urban design. Its Scope – High Profile master planning Visual Impact Assessment Art-inflected urban design Community engagement Improvement and replanting of vegetation
  17. 17. Functional Goals in Landscape Architecture14 To understand and analyze the site in detail for its best use in terms of plant selection and activity location. N
  18. 18. Functional Goals in Landscape Architecture15 To understand and analyze the site in detail for its best use in terms of plant selection and activity location. N
  19. 19. Functional Goals in Landscape Architecture16
  20. 20. Functional Goals in Landscape Architecture17 To clarify the current and future use of the space and design according to it.
  21. 21. Functional Goals in Landscape Architecture18 To calculate the budget as well as the maintenance cost of the design. To consider the function of plants. From a design perspective, plant materials have three major functions in the landscape: aesthetic, structural and utilitarian. - Aesthetically, plants create a visually pleasant environment - Structurally plants organize and define spaces. - Plants are utilitarian because they can transform the environment for the comfort of the user by modifying light, temperature and humidity. - Plants can also be used to control noise and odor. - Plants are very often used as visual barriers.
  22. 22. 19 TO ORGANISE AND DEFINE SPACES TO ORGANISE AND DEFINE SPACES TO CREATE A VISUALLY PLEASANT ENVIRONMENT
  23. 23. 20 TO ACT AS VISUAL BARRIERS DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL BARRIERS CREATED USING PLANTS TO TRANSFORM THE ENVIRONMENT BY MODIFYING NATURAL FACTORS
  24. 24. 21 TO ACT AS SOUND BARRIERS DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOUND BARRIERS CREATED USING PLANTS TO ACT AS SOUND BARRIERS
  25. 25. Aesthetic Goals in Landscape Architecture22 To propagate and popularize a space for tourism and branding. To attract investors and visitors. To have high natural value. To consider the function of plants. From a design perspective, plants have strong aesthetic purposes. - A visually pleasant environment - Beautification - Interesting shadow pattern - As a background/ foreground for other elements
  26. 26. 23 BEAUTIFICATION TO ACT AS A FOREGROUND / BACKGROUND
  27. 27. Environmental Goals in Landscape Architecture24  To prevent improve air quality.  To prevent pollutants by absorbing them from rain water.  To provide shade and shelter.  To provide habitat to other organisms.  To reduce ground water run-off and provide a natural storm water management.  To improve the urban environment by reducing carbon footprint.  To consider the function of plants. From a design perspective, plants have strong environmental purposes. - Roots absorb pollutants. - Properly planted vegetation stabilizes soil and prevents erosion. - Plants help controlling extreme climatic conditions.
  28. 28. Cultural Goals in Landscape Architecture25 Time Period/ Era Historical Event Notable development Goal Neolithic Era 10000-2000 BC Different civilizations of the world started harvesting crops simultaneously and started using cattle for improvisation. Advent of Agriculture Survival Chalcolithic Era 4500-3500 BC Indus Valley Civilization- well designed cities with drainage and sanitation. Advent of Sanitation. Concepts of Step-wells or Ghats Survival Mauryan Era 690-320 BC Construction of iron and stone sculpture to describe the power of the empire. Cave Architecture. Introduction of Sculpture and Rock-cut to Landscaping Glorification 900-1200 AD No distinctive landscape; Massive and intricately carved structures Era when Architecture its own Landscape One- dimensional Glorification
  29. 29. Cultural Goals in Landscape Architecture26 Time Period/ Era Historical Event Notable development Goal 1206-1526 AD Invasion and formation of the Delhi Sultanate First Infrastructure development in India; E.g. – Grand Trunk Road (Calcutta to Lahore). Introduction to canal irrigation which further helped in development of mughal gardens Societal Acceptance and Better Connectivity 1526-1857 AD Mughals ruled in North India and brought in the concepts of formal Charbagh. Thus were created world famous landscape designs like Taj Mahal, gardens of Kashmir, Red Fort, Fatehpur Sikhri, etc. Advent of properly Landscape Architecture in India. Reflection of the ruling power on the society, politics, history, geography, culture and nature.
  30. 30. Cultural Goals in Landscape Architecture27 Time Period/ Era Historical Event Notable development Goal Vijayanagar Empire 1300s AD Construction of group of monuments at Hampi in South India. Landscaping using landforms, geology and hydrology (like river forests) to create well designed open space systems. Advent of Water Management Technologies. Environment Beautification without huge expenditure. British Empire 1857-1947 AD Architecture like Rashtrapati Bhawan and Victoriqa Memorial came up. Industrialization Advent of a landscape design which was a combination of indigenous existing and British style. Huge Infrastructure Development Social Acceptance; Glorification
  31. 31. Cultural Goals in Landscape Architecture28 Time Period/ Era Historical Event Notable development Goal British Empire 1857-1947 AD Architecture like Rashtrapati Bhawan and Victoriqa Memorial came up. Industrialization Formation of many Botanical Gardens Streetscape Development Construction of high society luxuries like tennis courts, clubs, public parks. Social Acceptance; Glorification
  32. 32. Indian Landscape29 The physical setting is very important to merge with the context.
  33. 33. 30
  34. 34. Thank you

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