From a Black and White to a Technicolor View of Gender: A Discussion on Gender Identity and Gender Variance
FROM A BLACK AND WHITE
TO A TECHNICOLOR
VIEW OF GENDER:
A DISCUSSION ON GENDER
IDENTITY AND GENDER
By Aimee Beardslee
TOPICS OF DISCUSSION
Let‟s talk about sex…versus gender
What does “Intersex” mean? (It‟s more common than you think!)
What does “Transgender” mean?
Hormone Therapy & Sex Reassignment Surgery
Gender Development Theories
Gender Variance Across Cultures
Gender identity development in childhood and adolescence
DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder &
Proposed Criteria for DSM-V
Why is studying gender identity and gender variance important?
SEX VS. GENDER…
SEX: a term that typically describes an individual‟s
anatomical structure. “Biology”
GENDER: a term that describes an imposed or adopted
social and psychological condition. “Culture/Society”
GENDER ROLE: a term that describes the patterns of
behavior that are learned or “acted” based on one‟s
*Gender role scripts, rules, and expectations vary across
cultures…but more on that later!
GENDER, AND EVEN SEX, ARE NOT
Not everyone is born either “male” or “female”.
Although one‟s sex and gender are expected to be congruent,
not everyone grows up feeling that the two “match”.
Historically, the concepts of masculinity and femininity have
changed, and how they are defined varies across cultures.
There are many cultures that accept the existence of more
than two genders-and have for centuries!
Gender and sexual orientation are NOT the same. Gender
variance should not be conflated with homosexuality.
WHAT DOES “INTERSEX” MEAN?
An intersex person is “born with external
genitalia, chromosomes, or internal reproductive
systems that are not traditionally associated with
either a „standard‟ male or female” (NCTE, 2009).
Medical experts state that 1 in 1,500 to 1 in 2,000
infants are born with “noticeably atypical” genitalia
However, the actual number is likely to be
significantly higher, because many variations do not
show up until later in life (and some may never be
noticed! ISNA, 2008).
HOW COMMON IS INTERSEX? (FROM ISNA)
Not XX and not XY one in 1,666 births
Klinefelter (XXY) one in 1,000 births
Androgen insensitivity syndrome one in 13,000 births
Partial androgen insensitivity
one in 130,000 births
Classical congenital adrenal
one in 13,000 births
Late onset adrenal hyperplasia one in 66 individuals
Vaginal agenesis one in 6,000 births
Ovotestes one in 83,000 births
Idiopathic (no discernable medical
one in 110,000 births
HOW COMMON IS INTERSEX?
Iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment,
for instance progestin administered to no estimate
5 alpha reductase deficiency no estimate
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis no estimate
Complete gonadal dysgenesis one in 150,000 births
Hypospadias (urethral opening in
one in 2,000 births
perineum or along penile shaft)
Hypospadias (urethral opening between
one in 770 births
corona and tip of glans penis)
Total number of people whose bodies
one in 100 births
differ from standard male or female
Total number of people receiving surgery
one or two in 1,000 births
to “normalize” genital appearance
WHAT DOES “TRANSGENDER”
“An umbrella term for people whose gender
identity, expression, or behavior is different from
those typically associated with their assigned sex at
birth, including but not limited to transexuals, cross-
dressers, androgynous people, genderqueers, and
gender non-conforming people. Transgender is a
broad term and is good for non-transgender people
to use. „Trans‟ is shorthand for „transgender‟”
Prevalence of transgenderism varies widely, from 1
in 30,000…to 1 in 5,000…to 1 in 500 (Pleak, 2009).
Transgender man or “transman”: individual born
biologically female who identifies as male. Also
referred to as “FTM” (female-to-male)
Transgender woman or “transwoman”: individual
born biologically male who identifies as female.
Also referred to as “MTF” (male-to-female)
TRANSGENDER HORMONE THERAPY
Many transgender individuals undergo hormone therapy
to develop secondary sexual characteristics.
Transwomen receive estrogen, and transmen receive
Some effects of testosterone on secondary sex
characteristics include deepening of the voice, cessation
of ovulation/menstruation, growth of facial and body hair,
enlargement of the clitoris.
Some effects of estrogen on secondary sex
characteristics include breast growth, redistribution of
body fat (hourglass shape), reduction of musculature,
softening of facial contour.
SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY
SRS may also be called gender reassignment surgery, genital
reconstruction surgery, sex affirmation surgery, sex realignment
surgery, or a sex-change operation.
“Surgery” can include hysterectomy, mastectomy (“top
surgery”), removal of the ovaries, removal of testicles, breast
augmentation, genital reconstruction, and facial plastic surgery.
“Pre-op”: indicates individuals who have yet to undergo SRS but
“Post-op”: indicates individuals who have undergone SRS.
“Non-op”: indicates individuals who do not desire to undergo SRS.
GENDER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES:
Biological theories: posit that gender differences
are “ancestrally programmed” or that hormonal
influences are the basis of gender differences in
Psychoanalytic theories: posit that identification
with a certain gender is a result of child adopting
characteristics and qualities of the same-sex
GENDER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
Kohlberg’s Cognitive Developmental Theory: When children
achieve “gender consistency” they place value on their own
gender and seek to act in ways that are consistent with their
Kohlberg’s stages of Gender Development:
Gender Identity: Ability to label oneself a boy or girl and others
as boys or girls (usually by age 2).
Gender Stability: Ability to recognize gender remains constant
over time. “I was born a boy and will grow up to be a boy”
(usually by age 4).
Gender Consistency: Understanding that gender is invariant
despite outward changes. “That woman has short hair and is
wearing shorts but is still a woman” (usually by age 6 or 7).
GENDER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
Gender Schema Theory: similar to cognitive-
developmental theory. However, this theory posits
that as soon as a child masters gender identity (“I
am a boy” or “I am a girl”), gender schemas begin
to develop. These schemas expand and grow to
include “knowledge of activities and
interests, personality and social attributes, and
scripts about gender-linked activities” (Bussey &
Bandura, 1999, p. 5).
GENDER DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
Social Cognitive Theory: In this theory, “gender
conceptions and roles are the product of a broad
network of social influences operating interdependently
in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution
provides bodily structures and biological potentialities
that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a
fixed type of gender differentiation” (Bussey & Bandura,
1999, p. 676).
Basically, biology is not destiny, and multiple factors
(parents, peers, educational institutions, the media,
culture, etc.) interact to determine gender identity.
MODELS: ARE THERE ANY?
Transgender experiences do not readily fit into stage
models, because they do not fit into the traditional
gender binary construction (Bilodeau & Renn, 2005).
“Mallon argued that it is inappropriate for social service
practitioners to use traditional human development
models, including those of Erikson and Marcia, because
these theorists posit concepts of gender role
identification in traditionally gendered, biologically based
constructions” (Bilodeau & Renn, 2005, p. 33).
D‟Augelli‟s model has been used to understand
transgender development, but there is a need for the
creation of new models.
GENDER VARIANCE ACROSS
Many North American Indian tribes have a “third
gender”. Called “two-spirit” (formerly “berdache”),
these cross-gender individuals have been
documented in over 150 groups. (Newman, 2002).
In the Dominican Republic (guevedoche), Papua
New Guinea, and the South Pacific, children with
enzymatic deficiency (who have ambiguous
genitalia) are often raised female, but if virilization
occurs at puberty, the child is allowed to adopt a
male identity and this change is socially accepted
GENDER VARIANCE ACROSS
“There is no consensus across world cultures regarding
the appropriate traits, characteristics, and patterns of
behavior that males and females should have” (Langer
& Martin, 2004, p. 13).
Even within the same country, different cultures and
subcultures have different roles and expectations for
men and women.
For example, there may be more gender role equality
among African Americans but more rigid gender roles for
Latin American families (Langer & Martin, 2004).
GENDER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
Some children express feelings of wanting to be the other sex
as young as 1 and a half to 2 years old and pretend to be the
other sex when playing “pretend”.
Parents may be tolerant of such behavior up until the child
enters school; this is commonly when parents take children to
Gender variant children may be quite isolated in early school
years. At age 8-10, teasing worsens and they may be targets
of bullying and violence.
Only a small number of gender variant children will remain
gender variant into adolescence and adulthood.
Outcomes for gender atypical children: most become gender
typical gay and lesbian adults, some become gender typical
straight adults, and a few will become transgender adults.
GENDER IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
Around age 11 to 13, gender atypicality or gender variance
does not change much going forward.
Considerable consensus that these young people will
continue to be transgender or transexual as they mature.
Note: individuals may “transition” later in life, which may be
due to the necessity of suppressing their gender variance until
more freedom (or safety) is attained in adulthood.
Angie, transgender teen, 17 years old, NYC, trans
THE GENDER INTENSIFICATION
“Hill and Lynch proposed that puberty plays a role in the
differentiation of masculine and feminine characteristics
by serving as a signal to socializing others
(parents, teachers, peers) that the adolescent is
beginning the approach to adulthood and should begin
to act accordingly, that is, in ways that resemble the
stereotypical male or female adult” (Lerner &
Steinberg, 2004, p. 240).
"Straightlaced (a documentary) unearths how popular
pressures around gender and sexuality are confining
PEER RESPONSE TO GENDER NON-
CONFORMITY IN ADOLESCENCE
As Smith and Leaper (2005, p. 102) assert:
“Noting only the relation between gender typicality and
self-worth without considering the social context might
imply that gender typicality per se leads to
However, “multiple patterns of gender identity and
adjustment exist for adolescents with peer acceptance
being a critical mediator. Importantly, there was no
difference in the self-worth of non-conforming and
conforming adolescents if they felt accepted by their
peers” (emphasis in original).
TREATMENT OF TRANSGENDER
Option of delaying puberty via hormone therapy: this
allows a transgender adolescent to delay onset of
secondary sex characteristics (Ex/breast growth and
menstruation in females and facial hair growth and voice
deepening in males) so that he or she may have more
time to decide on a gender identity that feels right.
As mentioned, most adolescents are very aware their
minds and bodies don‟t “match” and have the desire to
make their sex and gender congruent. However, for the
few that may decide against changing their gender, the
treatment can be stopped and genetic puberty will
resume within 6 months.
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR GENDER
A. A strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not
merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of
being the other sex).
B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of
inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.
C. The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex
D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or
impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR GID IN CHILDREN
(Under criterion A) In children, the disturbance is manifested by four (or more) of the
repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that he or she is, the other sex
in boys, preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; in girls, insistence
on wearing only stereotypical masculine clothing
strong and persistent preferences for cross-sex roles in make-believe play or
persistent fantasies of being the other sex
intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other
strong preference for playmates of the other sex
In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a
stated desire to be the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, desire to live or
be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings
and reactions of the other sex.
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR GID IN CHILDREN
(Under criterion B)
In children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the
following: in boys, assertion that his penis or testes are
disgusting or will disappear or assertion that it would be better
not to have a penis, or aversion toward rough-and-tumble play
and rejection of male stereotypical toys, games, and activities;
in girls, rejection of urinating in a sitting position, assertion that
she has or will grow a penis, or assertion that she does not
want to grow breasts or menstruate, or marked aversion
toward normative feminine clothing.
In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by
symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary
and secondary sex characteristics (e.g., request for
hormones, surgery, or other procedures to physically alter
sexual characteristics to simulate the other sex) or belief that
he or she was born the wrong sex.
PROPOSED CRITERIA FOR DSM-V
Would change Gender Identity Disorder to Gender Incongruence
For Gender Incongruence in Children, children must meet criteria
1: "a strong desire to be of the other gender or an insistence that he
or she is the other gender“
"This will appropriately prevent children with a gender variant
expression without an incongruence between gender identity and sex
assigned at birth to receive the diagnosis, which was a common
point of critique for DSM IV" (DeCuypere, Knudson, & Bockting,
The distress criterion is proposed to be removed, which would make
the diagnostic criteria "so broad that almost any transgender person
could meet criteria for a mental disorder regardless of whether or not
they experience clinically significant distress and desire or need
intervention" (DeCuypere, Knudson, & Bockting, 2010).
IS GENDER VARIANCE REALLY A
What it means to be a “man” or a “woman” has changed over
time and is still changing (ex: “stay-at-home dads”).
Gender roles vary across cultures; some cultures allow for
more than two genders. Also, gender roles vary within
So-called “distress” or “dysphoria” is not inherent in being
gender variant; “incongruence” is not inherently unhealthy.
There is MUCH controversy over the GID diagnosis and many
argue for its removal; arguments parallel those that eventually
resulted in homosexuality being removed from the DSM in
WHY IS STUDYING GENDER IDENTITY
AND GENDER VARIANCE IMPORTANT IN
Our conception of gender influences the questions
we ask in research.
The lens through which we view gender while
performing research affects the outcome of that
How we view gender identity influences how we
treat transgender and gender variant
individuals, including children.
AWARENESS LEADS TO ACTION!
Being aware of LGBTQI issues helps us understand struggles
(across the entire lifespan) that are common among these
Awareness can also teach us to respond in ways that affirm
individuals with a transgender or gender variant identity,
increasing their chances for healthy outcomes. We can also
develop important interventions, some of which may be literally
For example, the suicide attempt rate for adolescents diagnosed
with GID has been found to be as high as 50 percent (Spack,
Other areas of concern are higher incidences of bullying, suicide,
drug abuse, domestic violence, rape, hate crimes, homelessness,
and HIV transmission (Youth Pride, Inc., 2010)
GENDER DIVERSITY ACCEPTANCE IS
A SOCIAL JUSTICE ISSUE!
Both the APA and ACA have ethical principles that
prohibit discrimination based on gender identity
(separate from gender).
Broadening our view of gender identity impacts
everyone, even “gender congruent” individuals.
A respect for gender diversity gives all people more
freedom to be themselves!
SOME RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER
Stone Butch Blues by Leslie Feinberg (a transgender man)
Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us by Kate Bornstein
(a transgender woman)
Transgender Warriors : Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis
Rodman by Leslie Feinberg
Middlesex (a novel) by Jeffrey Eugenides
Boys Don‟t Cry (based on the true story of Brandon Teena)
Ma Vie en Rose
Transamerica (starring Felicity Huffman)
Southern Comfort (a documentary on the life of Robert Eads, a
Hedwig and the Angry Inch (an entertaining musical/comedy/drama
about a transgender German glam rocker)
The Trevor Project: The leading national organization providing
crisis intervention and suicide prevention services to
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth.
National Center for Transgender Equality: Non-profit
organization dedicated to advancing the equality of transgender
people through advocacy, collaboration, and empowerment.
Human Rights Campaign (HRC): The largest civil rights
organization working to achieve equality for
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Americans.
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force: Non-profit corporation
that works to build the grassroots political power of the LGBT
community to win complete equality.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC:
Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT Identity
Development Models and Implications for Practice. New Directions
for Student Services (111), 25-39.
Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory of Gender
Development and Differentiation. Psychological Review, 106, 676-
DeCuypere, G., Knudson, G., & Bockting, W. (2010, May 25).
Response of the World Professional Association for Transgender
Health to the Proposed DSM 5 Criteria for Gender Incongruence.
Retrieved from World Professional Association for Transgender
Health Web site: www.wpath.org/documents/WPATH Reaction to the
proposed DSM - Final.pdf
Diamond, M. (2002). Sex and Gender are Different: Sexual Identity
and Gender Identity are Different. Clinical Child Psychology and
Psychiatry, 7 (3), 320-334.
Intersex Society of North America. (2008). How common is
intersex? Retrieved from Intersex Society of North America
Web site: http://www.isna.org/faq/frequency
Langer, S. J., & Martin, J. I. (2004). How Dresses Can Make
You Mentally Ill: Examining Gender Identity Disorder in
Children. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21 (1), 5-
Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (2004). Handbook of Adolescent
Psychology. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons.
Manners, P. J. (2009). Gender Identity Disorder in
Adolescence: A Review of the Literature. Child and
Adolescent Mental Health, 14 (2), 62-68.
NCTE. (2009, May). Transgender Terminology. Retrieved from
NCTE Web site:
Newman, L. K. (2002). Sex, Gender and Culture: Issues in the
Definition, Assessment and Treatment of Gender Identity
Disorder. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7 (3), 352-
Pleak, R. R. (2009). Formation of Transgender Identities.
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 13, 282-291.
Smith, T. E., & Leaper, C. (2005). Self-Perceived Gender
Typicality and the Peer Context During Adolescence. Journal
of Research on Adolescence, 16 (1), 91-103.
Spack, N. P. (2009). An Endocrine Perspective on the Care of
Transgender Adolescents. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental
Health, 13, 309-319.
Youth Pride, Inc. (2010). Statistics. Retrieved from Youth
Pride, Inc. Web site:
FOREST (FTM) TALKS WITH HIS PARENTS
ABOUT GROWING UP TRANS
Talking With My Parents About Being Transgender
“This footage is the first time I have EVER talked
openly about being trans with my parents. It was
very hard to do, but the love was strong and I was
impressed. To feel acceptance from family is very
Notas do Editor
Gender role: “How boys/girls and women/men should behave or be treated”
Gender Identity, Gender Expression, Biological Sex, and Sexual Orientation can all be considered to exist on a continuum. There are innumerable combinations of the four.
NCTE: National Center for Transgender Equality
Increasingly, this group of conditions is being called “disorders of sex development” (DSDs).
Because some statistics on the number of trans individuals have been based on the number of people seeking SRS, the number is probably much higher. Numerous individuals cannot afford SRS, are waiting to have it done, or do not want to have it done. Also, the U.S. census does not have a category for a third gender. Interestingly, Nepal added a third gender category to their census last year (2011).
Note: if a person is transgender, he or she may not necessarily always want to be referred to as a “transman” or “transwoman”. Trans individuals often want to just be called the gender they identify as: man or woman. Some people are openly trans, but some people would prefer to “pass”. Still, others prefer “trans” or other variations like “genderqueer”, “gender non-conforming”, “bigender”, etc. Note: If you have a transgender or gender variant client or student, simply ask them in private how they would like to be addressed. Many trans individuals prefer pronouns that match their gender identity. If they are transmen may want to be referred to as “Mr.” or “Sir”Transwomen: “Ma’am”, “Ms.”, “Miss”, or “Mrs.”’Some people prefer “gender neutral” pronouns such as ze (instead of he/she) and hir/hirself (instead of her/his and him/herself). It is better to politely ask rather than to assume and be wrong!
Some transgender individuals may desire “Sex Reassignment Surgery” (SRS) but not all of them wish to have surgery. Some individuals only utilize hormone therapy, and some may desire neither surgery nor hormone therapy.Quote from a transgender college student:I’d use the word transgender. I’d also use “non-operational female to male.” I’d also use the word “genderqueer.” I identified as a feminist before identifying as trans. It was really embedded in me. It played a big part in my decision not to have surgery. I’ve tried with my identity to not reinforce the gender binary system, and options have been limited to the trans community by focusing so much on transsexualism (involving gender reassignment surgery). The only option is, if you’re male, to become female, or vice-versa. Transgender youth have felt that binary gender system is not for them. We want to increase the number of genders (Bilodeau, 2005).
1-Basically, the belief that gender roles came about as a result of biologically driven mating preferences, reproductive demands, parental investment in child-rearing, and male aggression. 2-So, girls identify more with mom, and boys reject femininity and come to identify with dad. 3-Research to support either biological or psychoanalytic theories has been ambiguous at best and with very little empirical evidence at worst.
Criticism: studies have found children (typically) show preference for their own gender and choose “gendered” toys and playmates way before age 6!
Although gender schema theory would predict that the more elaborate children’s knowledge of gender is, the more they would show gender-linked preferences, there is no empirical support. Adults typically have very broad knowledge of gender stereotypes but this does not automatically mean they act more stereotypically.
1-The “two-spirit” individual transcends the male/female categories and is regarded as having a high social status in a spiritual system. 2-5-alpha-reductaseAnother Example: In Zuni tribe of North American Indians, they do not assign sex at birth regardless of genitalia because they believe it may change. Rituals are performed to “discover” the sex of an infant and to determine how the child should be reared.
Also, a third gender (or even fourth, fifth, etc.) has been recognized throughout history in several cultures and religions.-Mesopotamian mythology (one of the earliest written records of humans) references a third gender, as do Ancient Egyptian pottery shards.-Hermaphroditus in Greek mythology.-Many creation myths reference three genders.-Also, references to third gender in texts of Indian spiritual traditions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.-The Hijra in India have been recognized for centuries (This third gender is mentioned in the Kama Sutra).-Fa'afafine may be viewed as a third gender specific to Samoan culture.A recognized and integral part of traditional Samoan culture, fa'afafine, born biologically male, embody both male and female gender traits.
Example of later transition: biological males growing up in the 50’s or 60’s who feel like women, but because of the culture they grew up in had to suppress their feelings and act more “gender typical”. Many such individuals got married to a woman, had a family, and then transitioned later in life to become transwomen. (The same could go for transmen.)
Clearly, this can be problematic for transgender youth whose bodies are becoming more gender-typed against their wishes.
Based on this research, I would postulate that support from other social systems (such as family, religious and educational institutions, the media, the legal system, etc.) would increase self-worth in gender variant youth.
Note: hormone therapy to delay puberty has been used for “precocious puberty” in children.Two important reasons to delay puberty in trans teens: Bodily changes that cause them to appear even more like the gender they do not identify as can be extremely traumatic and even greatly increase suicidality.Also, pubertal changes cannot be reversed. Although hormone therapy and SRS can alter the body later in life, these procedures and treatments are costly and can be painful (ex. mastectomy) and take years to complete. The paper begins like the others with a description of a 15 year-old girls abnormal gender role presentation: tomboyish, stocky, laconic (p. 356); her refusal to carry a purse were uncharacteristic of girls her age (p.357). Her problems began at puberty when she drank, took speed and engaged in sexual activities with boys in an attempt to make herself feel normal. At 14 she took an overdose, she said in order to die and come back as a boy (p. 357). When she realised this wasn't a solution she took up bodybuilding; unsatisfied with the results she began pursuing SRS, which she was initially denied.After a series of suicide attempts coinciding with her menstrual periods, the process of SRS began with endocrine treatment. She stabilised, changed her name to a male name and had a bilateral mastectomy and hysterectomy just after turning 18. The authors report that he continues to do well and is active in the campaign for recognition of transgender disorder and SRS.
All four must be met.
What are your thoughts? Do you see any inherent problems with this diagnosis?
1-perhaps this is less stigmatizing than "Disorder"? But this still treats "congruence" as the norm and "incongruence" as inherently problematic.2-Along with 5 other indicators that are similar to the current ones in DSM-IV
Example: psychiatric diagnoses have been used for ages to pathologize minorities, the oppressed, and marginal groups. Political dissidents in the former Soviet Union were diagnosed as schizophrenic, 19th century African American slaves who tried to run away from their masters were diagnosed with “drapetomania” or “flight from home madness”, and women have been diagnosed with depression, agoraphobia, sexual dysfunctions, and eating disorders as a result of living in a society that values rigid, traditional sex roles for women (Langer & Martin, 2004). Also, keep in mind that homosexuality was once included in the DSM as a mental disorder.
1-Ex./Something as simple as having only “male” or “female” as options in a survey can lead to a misrepresentation of that population and cause us to overlook important data. (As well as invalidate people!)2-For example, the allocation of resources can be affected, such as when we conduct the census and limit gender categories.3-It impacts how we treat and interact with them in a clinical (i.e., therapy), instructional (i.e., school), or personal (i.e., family/friends) setting.
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