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Open Science Governance and Regulation/Simon Hodson
Open Science Governance and Regulation
Simon Hodson, Executive Director, CODATA
SA-EU Open Science Dialogue Workshop
Birchwood Hotel & OR Tambo Conference Centre
Johannesburg, South Africa
30 November 2017
What is Open Science:
Open access to research literature.
Data that is as Open as possible, as closed as necessary.
FAIR Data (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable).
A shop window and repository of all research outputs.
A culture and methodology of open discussion and enquiry
(including methodology, lab notebooks, pre-prints)
Engagement with society and the economy in research
activities (citizen science, co-design / transdisciplinary
research, interface between research, development and
Research institutions have an opportunity to build their
reputation around research specialisation: and this requires data
specialisation and FAIR data collections.
The Open Science ethos and co-design helps build collaboration
between research institutions, government agencies and
The Open Data Iceberg
The Technical Challenge
The Ecosystem Challenge
The Funding Challenge
The Support Challenge
The Skills Challenge
The Incentives Challenge
The Mindset Challenge
Geoffrey Boulton (CODATA) - developed from an idea by Deetjen, U., E. T. Meyer and R. Schroeder
(2015). OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 246, OECD Publishing.
A(n Inter)National Infrastructure
Boundaries of Open
For data created with public funds or where there is a strong
demonstrable public interest, Open should be the default.
As Open as Possible as Closed as Necessary.
Proportionate exceptions for:
Legitimate commercial interests (sectoral variation)
Privacy (‘safe data’ vs Open data – the anonymisation
Public interest (e.g. endangered species, archaeological
Safety, security and dual use (impacts contentious)
All these boundaries are fuzzy and need to be understood
A great deal of data is not affected by these issues and can
and should be open.
There is a need to evolve policies, practices and ethics
around closed, shared, and open data.
What are data? When are data?
Complex pa erns
In nature & society
Patterns in space & time
Data is not the new oil. They are far more
valuable because they are renewable.
Big Data poses many challenges and
opportunities: how do we manage it and
develop the data science to extract
Small data poses many challenges, because
often they require detailed human-crafted
Often still our challenge is a lack of data, no
Data can be very varied: poses challenges of
storage, management, analysis.
Many disciplines have raw data, processed
data, science ready data or data products.
Important to understand which of these can
and / or should be preserved and made
Research data, public data…
Typology of data that are in scope of research data policies:
Data underpinning research conclusions presented the
literature must be published.
Significant data produced by research projects should be
made available where possible.
Data resulting from major data creation projects for
monitoring and research.
Data created by public activities where there are
research and development opportunities.
Private sector data where there is a public good case or
mutual benefit in data sharing.
Research data should be as open as possible, as closed as
All research data should be well managed and FAIR.
Criteria for appraisal, selection,
Need for more work on criteria and guidelines for appraisal, selection, preservation.
A lot of the criteria has to come from the disciplines, but informed by some general principles.
Major data collection/creation exercises with evident multiple uses (census, Hubble etc).
Unrepeatable observations, measurements in nature or society? (preserve and publish)
Data created by in vitro experiments that can be reproduced and for which the instruments
are being improved (perhaps very limited reasons for preserving)
Data collected for a given public or private purpose (traffic management, customer
relations, ships logs) but which could be used for research…
Need for collaborative approach (with researchers) to clarifying the criteria to keeping,
publishing and discarding data.
While being mindful of potential for other extra- and inter-disciplinary uses.
Qualified by the knowledge that some disciplines have to discard data because of the sheer
What is important is that we start actively exercising these processes.
DCC Guidelines: http://www.dcc.ac.uk/resources/how-guides/appraise-select-data
NERC Data Value Checklist: http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/sites/data/policy/data-value-
Barriers to Data Sharing
Concern that data may be misused or
Concern that will lose scientific edge if sharing
before fully exploited.
Desire to retain control of a professional asset.
Culture in particular research disciplines;
availability of infrastructure.
Concern that will not be credited.
Lack of career rewards for data publication.
Fundamentally, researchers are reluctant to
expend effort sharing data because they do
not feel that data is adequately exposed or
See ODE report, using Parse.Insight findings:
Nature special issue on data sharing:
Benefits of Data Sharing
The Value of Open Data Sharing, report for GEO
Tend to be expressed as systemic, macro-level benefits.
What are the benefits for individual institutions,
Will Open Science, building expertise in RDM, in
transdisciplinary research make institutions more
Will data collections serve as a shop window?
Some evidence of a citation advantage for articles
with open data?
To what extent are we seeing data citation?
Open Science Governance and Regulation
What governance, regulation and guidelines are needed to advance Open Science,
while respecting other imperatives?
Open Science and intellectual property, patents, innovation?
Open Data and data protection (Freedom of Information vs ZA Protection of
Personal Information (2013) / EU General Data Protection Regulation (May 2018)
What governance does Open Science require? I.e. what set of policies, principles,
norms and what mechanisms for compliance checking?
Global governance: governance of international projects and access to SA data.
Governance, roles and responsibilities among key actors (ministry, institutions,
Responsibilities and rewards for researchers, projects, institutions?
3-5 concrete recommendations; risks and opportunities, opportunity costs; outline time
frames, be realistic; international aspects are important.
Executive Director CODATA
Tel (Office): +33 1 45 25 04 96 | Tel (Cell): +33 6 86 30 42 59
CODATA (ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology), 5 rue Auguste Vacquerie, 75016 Paris,
Thank you for your attention!