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Do no harm: This principle seeks to ensure that local populations will not find themselves more vulnerable or poorer because of the establishment of PAs. Direction: This principle refers to the need for a clear strategic vision which is shared by all key stakeholders. Direction also involves integrating the PA into the surrounding social, political and economic context, including building compatibility and maintaining a consistent approach between PA planning instruments and plans and policies at all other relevant levels and sectors.Performance: protected areas need to strike a balance between achieving biodiversity conservation and being responsive to the concerns of stakeholders. Only by doing so can they succeed in achieving their long term goals. Nevertheless, performance tends to be measured in narrow, linear terms, depending on the observer’s viewpoint.
Accountability: roles and responsibilities need to be clear, clearly communicated and decision-makers need to be accountable. All stakeholders should be able to ensure that this happens.Transparency: this principle aims to secure that all relevant information is available to all stakeholders. Transparency also refers to the openness in which transactions are undertaken and the ability of people to have access to the necessary decision-making bodies.Human rights: basic human rights such as the right of freedom of opinion, the right to own property, the right to equal access to services etc. should be respected in the context of protected area governance.
On spheres of influence - Most adaptation strategies push for technological responses and capacity building initiatives targeted at government agencies and sectors, ignoring local adaptation capacity needs of vulnerable communitiesMost adaptation strategies push for technological responses and capacity building initiatives targeted at government agencies and sectors, ignoring local adaptation capacity needs of vulnerable communitiesOf the 8 countries studied only TZ, Uganda & Ghana followed participatory approaches to developmet of adaptation responses
Adaptive capacity is dependent on policies and strategies that are responsive to the needs & enhance the resilience of the most vulnerable systems and groups in society