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autonomic nervous system(ANS)



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autonomic nervous system(ANS)

  1. 1. Autonomic Nervous System - ------- □ is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating involuntary body functions, such as blood flow, heartbeat, digestion and breathing. □ further divided into two branches: c sympathetic system regulates the flight-or- fight responses c parasympathetic system helps maintain normal body functions and conserves physical resources.
  2. 2. 111---------------~------- □ The autonomic nervous system has two: c sympathetic nervous system c parasympathetic nervous system
  3. 3. Sympathetic Nervous System - ----------------- □ The sympathetic nervous system is located to the sympathetic chain, which connects to skin, blood vessels and organs in the body cavity. The sympathetic chain is located on both sides of the spine and consists of ganglias.
  4. 4. □ stimulates heartbeat . c raises blood pressure· - - - - - - - ~ - - □ dilates the pupils □ dilates the trachea and bronchi □ stimulates glycogenolysis - the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose □ shunts blood away from the skin and viscera to the skeletal muscles, brain, and heart □ inhibits peristalsis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract □ inhibits contraction of the bladder and rectum □ and, at least in rats and mice, increases the number of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus and thus increases long-term potentiation
  5. 5. ~ aras_1mpathetic Nervous _System _ □ he Parasympathetic system is the branch of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) responsible for the body's ability to recuperate and return to a balanced state (known as "homeostasis") after experiencing pain or stress.
  6. 6. □ Parasympathetic stimulation causes: - -~~-~~ □ slowing down of the heartbeat (as Loewi demonstrated) □ lowering of blood pressure □ constriction of the pupils □ increased blood flow to the skin and viscera □ peristalsis of the GI tract
  7. 7. Table 8-5 •1 1 ):tiit•):fi• )IiIiti·ii•):t•)§it◄:iii't·t'fli1ii@a Organ Heart (cardiac muscle) Bronchioles (smooth muscle) Iris (smooth muscle) Salivary glands Stomach and intestines (smooth muscle) Stomach and intestines (glands) Internal anal sphincter Urinary bladder (smooth muscle) Internal urethral sphincter Liver Pancreas Sweat glands Blood vessels in skin and viscera (smooth muscle) Blood vessels in skeletal muscle (smooth muscle) Adrenal glands Sympathetic Response • Increase rate • Dilate • Pupil dilates • Decrease secretion • Decrease peristalsis • Decrease secretion • Contracts to prevent defecation • Relaxes to prevent urination • Contracts to prevent urination • Changes glycogen to glucose • Secretes glucagon • Increase secretion • Constrict • Dilate • Increase secretion of epineph- rine and norepinephrine Parasympathetic Response • Decrease rate (to normal) • Constrict (to normal) • Pupil constricts (to normal) • Increase secretion (to normal) • Increase peristalsis for normal digestion • Increase secretion for normal digestion • Relaxes to permit defecation • Contracts for normal urination • Relaxes to permit urination • None • Secretes insulin and digestive enzymes • None • None • None • None
  8. 8. • Peresym11M1ll12Uc St1111•a.tes flev of sali Me ullt eblongat Slova lllnrtbeal Cemtrlcts lwencllll sti•ulales perblalsls ... aecrellen ~~F::=====1 stllll•lales release of bile Cenlracts Madder v.,•• nerve Symp...elk Dilates P•PII Al:celerales 1 llleartllleal Dia.tea lwencM s.,., -----~ """"'i- plexus Inhibits perlstal8is and aecretlen C hain ef sya,-llllelic ....... ---- Conversion et glycegen I• olucese - " Secretien et •••naline ..d '----~~~ neradrenaline Inhibits ,, Matlder conlractlen