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- 1. Results section (Principles of preparing figures and tables) Training Workshop on Scientific Research, Communication and Publication Ashok Pandey Research Officer, NHRC 1
- 2. The Results Section • The core of the paper • Often includes tables, figures, or both • Should summarize findings rather than providing data in great detail • Should present results but not comment on them • Data presentation should not repeat the data in the visuals, but rather highlight the most important points. • In the “standard” research paper approach, your Results section should exclude data interpretation, leaving it for the Discussion section 2
- 3. Results Report the key findings, – What you found – not why you found it and what it means to have such findings •Clear and concise summary of the data that was collected and the results of any statistical tests. •This section answers the question - What happened? •The results section is one of the most feared sections of the report. – But the fear is not justified 3
- 4. Results Provide meaningful information - Avoid raw data! Use of adjectives Clear and simple description of the findings - Text should compliment tables & figures - Highlight important findings, not details required. - OK to describe quantitative differences, e.g., higher, larger - Avoid subjective terms, e.g., remarkable, outstanding, interesting, significant 4
- 5. Mentioning tables and figures • In citing tables and figures, emphasize the finding, not the table or figure. – Not so good: Table 3 shows that researchers who attended the workshop published twice as many papers per year. Table 3 clearly shows that … It is obvious from figure 4 that … – Better: Researchers who attended the workshop published twice as many papers per year (Table 3). 5
- 6. State the result and then present the data or cite a figure or table. In the 20 control subjects, the mean resting blood pressure was 85 ± 5(SD) mmHg. In comparison, in the 30 patients, the mean resting blood pressure was 94 ± 3(SD) mmHg. vs. The mean resting blood pressure was 10% higher in the 30 patients than in the 20 control subjects (94 ± 3 [SD] vs 85 ±5[SD] mmHg, P< 0.02). Do not provide incomplete information “People taking ibuprofen daily were more likely to have asthma.” More likely than whom? 6
- 7. Verb Tense for the Results Section: Past Tense Examples: – A total of 417 samples contained . . . – _____ increased, but _____ decreased. – The average temperature was _____. – Three of the dogs died. – This difference was not statistically significant. 7
- 8. Common problems Endless Description • Without interpretation is another pitfall. Tables need conclusion, not the detailed presentation of all the number or percentages in cell • Readers can also read tables Sometimes qualitative data are just coded and counted like quantitative data without interpretation even when they are providing important information. Its serious maltreatment of data
- 9. Example: JNHRC Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.” Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by such variables as age and sex should be included. http://jnhrc.com.np/files/about.submission/author_guideline.pdf 10
- 10. Example: JPAHS Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text, or they can be published solely in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.” Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by such variables as age and sex should be included. 11 Author Guidelines Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences
- 12. Principles of preparing figures and tables Present data appropriately Data Looks Better Naked
- 13. Use of charts and Tables Use tables • You need to compare or look up individual values. • You require precise values. • The data has to communicate quantitative information, but not trends. Use charts • Is used to convey a message that is contained in the shape of the data. • Is used to show a relationship between many values
- 16. What do you want to do? 1 DV, 1IV 1 DV, >1IV
- 17. Comparison of 2 groups Ratio/interval Paired Group Independent t test Man Whitney Test Fisher Exact Chi Square Ratio/interval Paired t test Wilcoxon Test McNemars Test NonN Non- KolmogorovK Smirnov Test Shapiro-Wilk Test KolmogorovK Smirnov Test Shapiro-Wilk Test One Dependent, One Independent Variable Yates Correction Chi Square Sample size>40, Exp cell value>5 Yates Correction Sample size>40, Exp. cell value<5 Fisher Exact test Sample size20-40, Exp. cell value<5
- 18. Comparison of >2 groups Paired Group Kruskal Wallis test Chi Square Friedman Test Cochrane Test Q Regressio Ratio/interval One Way ANOVA Ratio/interval Repeated ANOVA Other Normality tests: KolmogorovK Smirnov Test Shapiro-Wilk Test KolmogorovK Smirnov Test Shapiro-Wilk Test Logistic n One Dependent, One Independent Variable Lilliefors corrected K-S test Anderson-Darling test Cramer-von Mises test Jarque-Bera test
- 19. Tables and Figures •Foundation of your paper – tells the story •Minimum no. of tables and figures (journals have limits) •Do not present same data in tables and figures •Know when to use a table vs. a figure •Use similar formats so readers do not have to reorient themselves to each table / figure •Make them look professional – use footnotes •Make sure all are cited in the text •Do not waste space - Make use of Supplemental Material 20
- 20. Basic rules for the preparation of tables and graphs Ideally, every table should: • Be self-explanatory; • Present values with the same number of decimal places in all its cells • Include a title informing what is being described and where, as well as the number of observations •Have a structureformed by three horizontal lines, defining table heading and the end of the table at its lower border; •Not have vertical lines • Provide additional information in table footer, when needed • Be inserted into a document only after being mentioned in the text; and • Be numbered by Arabic numerals.
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- 22. Frugal use of "non-data ink" Pie Chart • https://speakerdeck.com/ cherdarchuk/data-looksc better-naked-pie-chartb edition Bar Diagram • https://speakerdeck.com/ cherdarchuk/remove-toc improve-the-data-ink-ratio
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- 24. Results: A Suggestion • Look at the Results sections of some papers in your target journal. • Notice items such as the following: – Length – Organization – Inclusion of subheads (or not) – Number of tables and figures • Use these Results sections as models. 25
- 25. Thank you! 26