History of Torpedo Batteries.
• In modern language, a "torpedo" is
an underwater self-propelled
explosive, but historically, the
term also applied to primitive
naval mines .
• Early spar torpedoes were created
by the Dutch scientist who
attached explosives to the end of
a beam affixed to one of their
submarines which caused little
• In 1866, Whitehead invented the
first effective self-propelled
eponymous Whitehead torpedo.
CONSTRUCTION OF ZINC/SILVER OXIDE
• Zinc/Silver Oxide batteries are currently produced
with flat circular cathodes and homogeneous gelled
• Cathodes: Are a mixture of AG2O and conductor.
• Anodes : Are a gelled mixture of amalgamated zinc
powder and electrolyte.
• Separators : Are constructed of specially selected
materials to prevent the migration of any solid
particles in the battery.
• Gaskets : Insulating and sealing gaskets are molded
• Can : The exterior battery surfaces of the can are of
nickel and resist corrosion and insure good electrical
TYPES OF SILVER OXIDE BATTERIES.
• (low drain) Cells are
primarily designed for low
drain continuous use over
long periods of time,
typically up to five years.
• This is commonly found in
analog watch applications.
• (high drain) Cells are
designed for continuous low
drains with periodic high
drain pulse demand. Life
expectancy for this type is
between one to three years.
• This is commonly in
applications like LCD
watches with backlight,
analog watches with alarms
and calculators etc.
ADVANTAGES OF SILVER OXIDE BATTERY.
• They have a low internal resistance, which
makes them attractive for high-power
applications where the current rate may reach
20 times the nominal capacity or 20C rate.
• For this reason, in applications where
performance outrages the cost, secondary zinc–
silver oxide batteries are superior to other
• Airplanes, submarines , space crafts are
examples of such markets.
Disadvantages OF SILVER OXIDE BATTERY.
• Uses expensive materials.
• Lower energy density than zinc air.
• Poor low temperature performance.
• Limited cycle life.
• Suffers from dissolving of the Zinc and the
formation of Zinc dendrites which pierce the
• More expensive than zinc air
• Very expensive for high power applications
• A major contribution to miniature power sources.
• As a button cell it is well suited for hearing aids,
instruments, photographic applications, electronic
watches and other low power devices.
• Larger size Silver Zinc batteries are used in
submarines, missiles, underwater and aerospace
• Silver Zinc secondary cells being promoted as a safer
alternative to Lithium cells. Plans to mitigate the
higher costs by implementing a recycling programme.
Varoius types of batteries used in modern day warheads.
• Black Shark Torpedo :The propulsion system with Al - AgO
battery, contra-rotating brushless motor and skewed propellers
ensures a maximum speed of 50kt and range of 50km.
• F21 Heavyweight Torpedo : The F21 can be operated in depth
ranging from 10m to 500m and is driven by electric propulsion
based on the Silver oxide - Aluminium (AgO-Al) primary battery
providing a speed of 25kt to 50kt, range of over 50km and
endurance of one hour.
• Spearfish Heavyweight Torpedo : Its power plant is composed
of a gas turbine engine using Otto Fuel as a liquid
monopropellant, and Hydroxyl Ammonium Per chlorate (HAP)
as oxidant. The propulsion system allows the Spearfish to
engage targets within 48km at low speed.
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