2. Finishing :-
Finishing is a process that
convert woven or knitting cloth
into usable material and more
specifically to any process
performed after dyeing the
yarn or fabric . To inprove tne
look performance hand feel of
the textile cloth.
4. PERMANENT FINISHES
• MECHANICAL =Milling of wool various
raising and shearing process controlled
• Shrinkages process
• DEPOSITION= Cellulose esters and ethers
• Synthetic resius both nternal and external
• CHEMICAL= Mecerizing silicoue treatment
• Hydrophoic effect
5. TEMPORARY FINISHES
• TEMPORARY FINISHES= Applied
cotton fabrics may be classified into
• (a)=Pure finish
• (b)=medium finish
• (C)=heavy finish
• PURE FINISH=Cloth is stretched to
define width glued a calendered lightly
qnd No other substance is added to the
6. MEDIUM FINISH
• Increases the wright of fabric from 5to10%
by using starches dextrins Depending on
the effect desired
• The object of the finish is to give body to
the cotton cloth cloth and to retain the
effect of calendering your and medium
finishes are finally given to the quality
8. FINISHING CHEMICAL
• A no of Chemicals are used in textile
finishing chemical. These chemicals
are applied into or deposited in the
textile material and retained By
mechanical deposited and held by
physical force and chemical raction
9. STIFFNING AGENTS
• These includes thickener like corn
starch ,wheat starch,Patato starch,
dextrins, soluble starch,gums,
polyvinyl acetate carboxymethyl
• This includes glycerine, glucos, tallow,
coconut oil,palm oil, olive oil, non ionic
softener anionic softener cationic
softener, silicone emulsion etc
12. DECATISING :-
This is a finishing process meant for wollen
fabric essentially it is a stress relaxation process
various stresses built up in the material during
spinning and weaving are relaxed and fibers are
stabilized in new and desired construction .
13. 1. To improve luster
2. Crease resistance
3. Water proofing
4. Soil resistance
5. moth proofing
6. flame proof and resistance
purpose of finishing :-
14. Damping :-
Mechanical operation of
calendaring depends on
pressure ,friction ,heat and
moisture . Hence before
calendaring ,fabric is passed
through a damping machine
where sufficient quality of
moisture is added to fabric
16. In brush damping machine ,A
revolving roller consist brush on
whole surface of it the roller at
high speed roller in contact with
water in a tank
the brush roller sprinkles water
on the fabric which passes over
1)Brush damping machine:-
18. The machine consist of cast iron
frame and rectangular wooden
water tank the brush is made of
fibres or copper spikes
The level of water is maintained
In machine fabric is move with
the guide roller at same speed
19. Spray damping machine:-
The machine is an improvement of
brush damping machine this is
similar to brush damping machine
But the brush is replace by closely
spaced nozzles . That nozzle are
attached to common feed pipe .
Which is supply water under
pressure from a pump.
20. Diagram of spray damping machine :-
A - fabric
B – nozzle
c – guide
D – water
21. Feed pump and nozzle are
enclosed in a wooden box as
the machine is automatic it
stop immediately so no risk
of over damping. After
damping cloth is allowed to
stand for 24 hrs .so that
moisture is uniformly
22. There are four type of
drying machine :-
2)hot air drying
23. It is also called drum or can drying
machine. It consist a series of hollow
cylinder are arranged horizontally in
two row or vertically in two columns .
Each cylinder is geared to adjust one
. the cylinder are placed step wise .
So that the fabric is travel is in
contact with hot surface steam under
the pressure is supplied to each
cylinder which are hollow.
Cylinder drying machine :-
25. The cylinder are usually made
up of copper sheet or
stainless sheet but cheaper
one are made of tinned iron
sheet the wall thickness of
cylinder must be such that
cylinder should with steam
26. Hot air drying machine:-
Passing a current of hot air a wet
cloth dried the faster than keeping
the cloth in an enveloped hotter
This is the principle used in
festoon or hanging dryer .
The machine consist of a metal
casing suitable insulated .the wet
cloth is feted .
28. In this dryer use a drum of large diameter
.this revolving drum is covered by a
blanket supported on a perforated sheet
The wet cloth is fed into the casing and
lies on the surface of the blanket all
around the drum . Hot air is blow into the
casing and extracted form the inside of
the revolving drum after passing through
the cloth and blanket .
This machine suited for light weight cloth.
Drum drying machine:-
30. Stenter drying machine:-
Unlike in cylinder drying machine in
stenter drying machine the clothe width
can be control.
it consists at a pair at hold
travelling change which directly hold the
selvedge of fabric carrying it through the
machine under complete width uses in
automatic grip stander the grips automatic
grip only the required amount of selvedge .
32. Normally hot air and hot gases are
uses on the drying medium is starter
for through adjustable nozzles.
Normal steam is used at heating
medium .Also liquid heating system
and electrical heaters can be used.
Hot air stanter can be in closed in an
insulated chamber to avoid the loss of
heat. There is a special over feeding
arrangement in pin stanter to give pre
shrunk treatment to fabric.
34. SHRINKAGE OF COTTON
• Shrinkage is the construction in the
dimension of the fabric due to uses cotton
fabric suffer from two main disadvantage
of creasing and shrinking during washing
• This is whyMast cotton clothing will shrink
during its first washing the best way to
avoid shrinkage ishqbaaz them by hand or
to use cold water and the delicate cycle of
your washing machine
• Cotton has the property of swelling in
water and this effects shrinking on
waiting swelling take place and
rearrangement of internal force also
• Anyone who has worn cotton shirt or
overall known as that these garments
are sometimes liable to shrink when
they are washed many prudent house
wives provide an extra large hem or
casement curtains to allow for the
shortening after washing
38. CREPE EFFECT
Creping is a special effects produce mosty on
rayon fabric is treated in simple soap solutions to
for good crping effect the popular Construction of
fabric is plain warp and creap weft to get regular
cream effect embossing Callender is most care
Should be taken pressure and temperature will
embossing get good permanent cream effect it is
nessasry To use high temperature and high
pressure during embossing
Calendering is an operation carried out
on a fabric to-
• Upgrade the fabric hand and to impart
a smooth silky touch to he fabric
• Compress the fabric and reduce its
• Reduce air permeabiity of the fabric
by changing its porosity
• Impart different degree of lusture to
42. CALENDERING MACHINE
An ordinary calender consists of a series of hard and soft bowls placed
in a definite order.
The soft roller may be of compressed cotton or paper. Calender may
consist 3,5,6,7 or 10 cylinders. The sequence of roller is that no two
hard rollers are in contact with each other. Pressure and heat applied in
on the finish required.
44. TYPES OF CALENDERING
There are five types of calendering machine, which are following-
1. Snizzing Calender or Ordinary Calender
2. Friction Calender
3. Chasing Calender
4. Schreineing Calender
5. Embossing Calender
45. SWIZZING CALENDER
Simple running of cloth through all the nips is called snizzing. This
operation closes interstices of the cloth and gives it a smooth
appearance. Before calendering softening and filling agents are applied
to produce lusture. All bowls rotate at same speed.
Iron bowls are heated by passing steam inside the bowl. Hot calender
produces smoothness and lusturous surface
47. FRICTION CALENDER
In this top four bowls of a 7 bowl universal calender may be lifted up
disconnecting the contact between third and fourth bowl. This operation
produces high degree of lusture on one side of fabric i.e. the side which
touches the iron bowl and heavy closing of threads take place. Top iron
bowl is rotated at double speed of the fabric and of lower two bowls.
48. CHASING CALENDER
• Cotton fabric passes through the all nips of calender over the chasing
roller and into the cotton nip of calender again so that fabric passes
through the machine. Several times each layer of cloth lying over
another chasing gives to the cloth a linen type appearance and a
special soft handle or feel.
50. SCHREINERING CALENDER
This gives a silk like brilliance to cotton fabric. This is done mainly on
cotton linings, printed fabric. In case of mercerized cotton it gives almost
silk like appearance.
Schreiner calender has strong frames carrying two bowls top one
being of special fine steal which is engraved with required no of lines
and is heated by gas. The upper roller is in contact with the lower cotton
bowl when machine is running and is seperated while not in use. Top
bowl is in fixed position and lower one is moved up and down. When
fabric passes through the nip very high pressure is exerted.
51. EMBOSSING CALENDER
It is similar to schreiner calender but bowls are much bigger. The top
chilled iron roll has a design engraved on it and is heated. In this
damask effect can be produced on cotton fabric but the effect is
temporary. I t last longer on mercerised cotton. Also high degree of
lusture is produced on the surface of ordinary sniz calendered fabric.
The lusture is due to polishing effect of the roll engravement under the
influence of heat and pressure. The degree of lusture can be increased
by passing the fabric once or twice through friction calender before
passing through embossing calender.
52. The effectiveness of dequantizing:-
1) Type of fibre
2) Time of contact
3) Amount of steam
5) Type of finish required
Shrinkage is contraction in dimensions of
fabric due to usage .cotton has to main
disadvantage of creasing and shrinking
during washing .
Creasing is overcome by resin finishing
shrinkage is prevented by special finishing
known as sulfurizing.
54. Sanforizing machine :-
• (1) Feeding end :- It consist of feeding roller .fabric is fed
in open width form .
• (2) Sprayer :- Sprayer is to moisture the fabric there by
making the yarn soft and plastic .
• (3) It is damping or steaming unit ,where moistening of
fabric is assisted by spray of steam , so that fabric can be
easily compressed .
55. Wash and wear finish :-
Wash and wear finish means wash –dry-
wear and no need of ironing . This finish
imparts crease recovery only and suitable
where pressed in crease are not required
pad - dry - cure
56. Post cure durable press :-
Resin padding Drying garment mf
washing high temp curing pressing
Hot rinse cold rinse Dry
58. Water proofing :-
Water proofing is preventing the passage of
both air and water through the fabric . It is used
for rain coat fabric ,tarpaulin ,umbrella cloth etc.
Method of water proofing :-
1)By depositing hydrophobic substance on
2)By making fabric hydrophobic it self.
59. Various chemicals used for water proofing are .
(1) Oxidized oils of varrishes .
(2) Cellulose acetate .
(3) Cupromonium hydroxide solution .
(4) Poly vinylidene chloride .
(5) Poly vinyl chloroacetate .
60. Mildew profing:-
This finish is given t protect the fabric from
mildew . This finish is very important for
material because microorganism utilize
them as there found and destroy them
.antiseptic substance prevent the growth of
61. Moth proofing:-
Moth proofing is given to prevent the growth
of moth ,mainly carried out on wool fabric.
Material is padded with 20% solution of
soluble solvent such as di- chloro benzene
or substances containing fluorine , dry and
62. Fire retardant finish :-
• To protect the fibre from easy firing is
known as fire retardant finish .it is a
chemical finish cotton and regenerated
rayon's catch fire and causes fire hazards
and fire accident in defense the fabric for
tents ,ropes ,parachutes are made flame
63. • Requirement :-
• The fastness properties feel , is reducing the oxygen content
of fiber or increasing the moisture content of fiber
• Flame proofing can be done by .
• Participating insoluble metallic comhandle of fabric should not
be adversely affected also finish should be fast to light
,washing and laundering .
• Process :- Mechanism of flame proofing pound or by
depositing soluble metallic salts .