O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
March Holidays Assignment Name: Class:
Enzymes
1
Level 1
Let’s find out more about metabolism…
At this very moment of doin...
March Holidays Assignment Name: Class:
Enzymes
2
Enzymes have an active site that allows substrate molecules to bind to it...
March Holidays Assignment Name: Class:
Enzymes
3
1. Concentration of enzymes
An increase in the concentration of enzymes i...
March Holidays Assignment Name: Class:
Enzymes
4
 Enzymes work best at optimum pH where the active sites are fully
functi...
March Holidays Assignment Name: Class:
Enzymes
5
Level 5
Enzymes obtained from microbes (fungi or bacteria) are commonly u...
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

Enzymes holiday work ans

470 visualizações

Publicada em

Publicada em: Educação, Tecnologia, Negócios
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

Enzymes holiday work ans

  1. 1. March Holidays Assignment Name: Class: Enzymes 1 Level 1 Let’s find out more about metabolism… At this very moment of doing this assignment, multiple activities are happening inside your cells. Metabolism is the biochemical reactions going on within a living organism. There are two types of reactions: anabolic and catabolic reactions. Anabolic reactions Building up of complex molecules from simpler ones (e.g. condensation of glucose molecules to form glycogen). Catabolic reactions Breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones and often involves the release of energy (e.g. breaking down of glucose into carbon dioxide and water by cellular respiration) Level 2 There must be some important stuff in your cells that govern metabolic activities. Let’s take a look at them… Enzymes These protein molecules are involved in the digestion of food (e.g. catabolic reaction) to the synthesis of your genetic material, DNA (anabolic reaction). Enzymes are biological catalysts that can speed up reactions without themselves being chemically changed at the end of the reactions (reusable). Only a small amount of enzymes are required for any reaction. Here’s a 3D model of how it looks like: Anabolic Catabolic
  2. 2. March Holidays Assignment Name: Class: Enzymes 2 Enzymes have an active site that allows substrate molecules to bind to it. The shape of an active site is complementary… to the shape of the substrate molecules which makes enzymes display high substrate specificity. Level 3 What is the lock and key model all about? Is this the correct hypothesis? The lock and key model demonstrates the substrate specificity of enzymes. Level 4 Let’s investigate the factors affecting enzyme activity. Why do you think it’s a bad idea to have prolonged fever? Substrate A Substrate B Enzyme Which substrate will bind to the active site of the enzyme? Ans: …………………………… If you are challenged to find out more… Read up on the Induced fit model. How is this model different from the lock and key model developed by Emil Fischer in 1894? Present your findings in class! Induced fit model does not require the active site(s) of an enzyme to be perfectly complementary to the substrate molecule .
  3. 3. March Holidays Assignment Name: Class: Enzymes 3 1. Concentration of enzymes An increase in the concentration of enzymes increases the amount of active sites available, causing the rate of reaction to increase. Concentration of substrate An increase in the concentration of substrate increases the occupancy of active sites causing the rate of reaction to increase. What happens when there is more substrate than enzymes? All the active sites of the enzyme will be occupied by the substrate. Thus enzyme will carry out the reaction with maximum capacity (the reaction rate has reached the maximum.) further increase in the substrate molecules will not increase the rate of reaction any further at the moment. 2. Temperature  As temperature increases, the rate of enzyme reaction increases.  At temperatures below the optimum temperature, enzyme have less active activity. (note: inactive/non-active is not accepted, as a more accurate description is enzymes are less active.)  Beyond the optimum temperature, enzyme reaction decrease, as the enzymes are now denatured. 3. pH Rate of enzyme action Temperature / oC Optimum temperature Activity increases Optimal activity (most active) Activity decreases Enzyme denaturation
  4. 4. March Holidays Assignment Name: Class: Enzymes 4  Enzymes work best at optimum pH where the active sites are fully functional.  At extreme pH levels (too low, or too high), the shape of the active site is altered causing the enzyme to inhibit its activity because the substratre is unable to bind to the active site. 0 Enzyme activity p H72 8 pepsin salivary amylase lipase If you are challenged to find out more… Read up more about enzyme inhibitors. How can enzyme inhibitors be harmful/useful to living things? Present your findings in class!
  5. 5. March Holidays Assignment Name: Class: Enzymes 5 Level 5 Enzymes obtained from microbes (fungi or bacteria) are commonly used in the industry. What can we use these enzymes for? - Pharmaceuticals o Catalase  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… - Biological washing powders o Lipase  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… o Protease  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… - Food production o Protease  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… o Isomerase  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… o Lipase  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… - Textiles o Protease  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… o Cellulase  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

×