Descriptive paragraph

-- em school of Basic Education/ Sulaimani University
20 de Apr de 2016

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Descriptive paragraph

  1. By Zhian F Asaad
  2.  A descriptive paragraph explains how someone or something looks, feels.  Opinion paragraph tells what the writer feels about a topic.  A process paragraph explains how something is done.
  3.  Using adjectives in descriptive paragraph: Adjective is a word that describes or clarifies a noun by giving some information about an object’s size, shape, age, color, origin or material.  It’s a big table. (size)  It’s a round table. (shape)  It’s an old table. (age)  It’s a brown table. (color)  It’s an English table. (origin)  It’s a wooden table. (material)  It’s a lovely table. (opinion:)  It’s a broken table. (observation)  It’s a coffee table. (purpose) Note : When an item is defined by its purpose, that word is usually not an adjective, but it acts as one in that situation. coffee table , baseball player
  4. Note : If you come across a word that ends in -y, -ary or -ate (or any other suffix for that matter), and you want to know whether it’s an adjective or not, just look at where it is and what it’s doing in the sentence. If it comes immediately before a noun, and especially if it comes between an article (a, an, the), a possessive adjective (my, his, her, its, your, our, their), a demonstrative (this, that, these, those) or an amount (some, most, all, a few) and a noun, then it’s probably an adjective. The grassy field was wet with dew. – “Grassy” comes between an article (the) and a noun (field), so you know it’s an adjective. We had a few ordinary days. – “Ordinary” comes between an amount (a few) and a noun (days), so it’s definitely an adjective. Did you see that immaculate kitchen? – “Immaculate” comes between a demonstrative (that) and a noun (kitchen), so it must be an adjective.
  5.  Adjectives can be positioned: 1. before the noun that they modify. (e.g. small child ) 2. adjectives can come after (verb to be or “sense” verbs). The child is small. The child seems small. An important thing to consider is verbs that turn into adjectives. Usually, the verb has -ing tacked onto the end of the root form. The adjective can be placed before the noun or after the verb.  The smiling baby is really cute.  This is my new washing machine. Washing is acting like an adjective for machine.
  6.  By prepositions: Prepositions tell us how a space is organized. Such as: In front of, in back of, behind, on top of, on the bottom of, next to, above, below, underneath, to the right of, to the left of, in the middle of, between, around.
  7. 1) An opinion paragraph tells what the writer feels about a topic. 2) It states an opinion in the topic sentence. 3) It uses reasons and details to explain the opinion. 4) Good Opinion paragraphs rely on FACTS to back up its argument. 5) Bad Opinion paragraphs use personal opinions to support its argument. Guidelines for writing an opinion paragraph. 1) Begin with a topic sentence that clearly states your topic and opinion about this topic 2) Provide strong reasons that explain, or support, your opinion. 3) Give details that explain each reason. Include facts and examples. 4) Let the audience hear your voice. Tell how you really feel. 5) Restate your opinion and sum up your ideas in the last sentence.
  8.  A FACT is something that is true. It can be proven to be true. If you can find proof, or evidence for a sentence, then it is a FACT. 1. Rabbits are mammals. 2. George Washington was the first president of the United States. 3. There are books in the library.
  9.  An OPINION is what someone believes -it cannot be proven true or false. It is your personal feeling or point of view.  When you talk about your opinions you can start your sentences with phrases like the following:  I think  I don’t think  I believe  In my view,  In my opinion,
  10. Some adjectives give a specific opinion. We usually put a general opinion in front of a specific opinion:  Nice tasty soup. Usually we put an adjective that gives an opinion in front of an adjective that is descriptive:  A nice red dress; a silly old man. We often have two adjectives in front of a noun:  A handsome young man; a big black car; that horrible big dog Sometimes we have three adjectives, but this is unusual:  A nice handsome young man; a big black American car; Note: Adjectives usually come in this order: General opinion, Specific opinion, Size, Shape, Age, Color, Nationality, Material .
  11. OPINION REASONS & EXAMPLES OPINIONTop Cookie Creamy Filling Bottom Cookie O R E O
  12. 1. Learning English is easier for girls than for boys. 2. There are more girls than boys in our English department. 3. Cell phones are convenient. 4. Many people carry cell phones these days. 5. I don’t think that wearing the latest fashion is important. For each topic below, write one fact and one opinion: 1. Money 2. Sports 3. University degree 4. White lies
  13. 1. In a process paragraph, you explain how to make or do something. 2. To explain how to do something clearly, break the process into a series of steps and explain each step. 3. Arrange the steps in order by time and use time order signals to guide your reader from step to step. eg: First, (second, etc.) Then (no comma) Now (no comma) Next, Finally, After that, Meanwhile,
  14. Or: The first step … (no comma) The next step … (no comma) The final step … (no comma) After five minutes, After you take
  15.  transitions are phrases or words used to connect one idea to the next. They are:
  16. Addition  furthermore  moreover  too  also  in the second place  again  in addition  even more  next  further  last, lastly  finally  besides  and, or, nor  first  second, secondly, etc. Time while immediately never after later, earlier always when soon whenever meanwhile sometimes in the meantime Place here there nearby beyond wherever opposite to adjacent to neighboring on above, below during afterwards now, until now next following once then at length simultaneously so far this time
  17.  In addition and Additionally are used to give more information about something. When you write a formal essay, you should not start a sentence with the word “And”. You can often use “In addition” or “Additionally” instead of “And”. • I studied journalism in college. In addition, I had a part‐time job at a newspaper. • I joined the guitar club and the math club in school. Additionally, I went on a camping trip with the debate team.
  18. Furthermore and Moreover are also very formal, and they are basically the same as “in addition” and “additionally”. We often use “moreover” and “furthermore” when we talk about our opinions. • Smoking is a bad habit because it smells bad and it can damage your health. Furthermore, it is a very expensive. • Students are given too many tests these days. Moreover, they don’t have enough free time.
  19. Plus and …as well can be formal or informal. (“…as well” is used at the end of a sentence”) • That car has new brakes, an air‐conditioner, and a new CD player. Plus, it has an alarm. • The typhoon destroyed my cousin’s home, and it destroyed his car as well.
  20. As well as means “and also”.  Sentence Pattern: A as well as B (+ing) A and B as well as C (+ing) Example:  I went to Paris and London, as well as Berlin and Edinburgh. • I studied psychology and medicine, as well as working in a hospital to gain firsthand experience.  His bad attitude causes him to do poorly in school, as well as making it harder for him to make friends.
  21.  Not only … but also: This is similar to “as well as” and is often used in formal writing Sentence Pattern: not only A but also B. Example: • This city is not only expensive but also dangerous.
  22.  Exemplification or Illustration to illustrate to demonstrate specifically for instance as an illustration e.g., (for example) • Comparison in the same way by the same token similarly in like manner likewise in similar fashion
  23.  Contrast yet and yet nevertheless nonetheless after all but however though otherwise on the contrary in contrast on the other hand at the same time Clarification that is to say in other words to explain i.e., (that is) to clarify to rephrase it to put it another way Cause because since on account of for that reason
  24.  Effect therefore consequently accordingly thus hence as a result • Purpose in order that so that to that end, to this end for this purpose • Qualification almost nearly probably never always frequently perhaps maybe although
  25.  Intensification indeed to repeat by all means of course certainly without doubt yes, no undoubtedly in fact surely in fact Summary to summarize in sum in brief to sum up in short in summary
  26.  Concession to be sure granted of course it is true Conclusion in conclusion to conclude finally Demonstratives acting as transitions this those these that