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Humanism vs. constructivism

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Humanism vs. constructivism

  1. 1. What is Humanism?
  2. 2. • It is a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. A central assumption of humanism, according to Huitt (2001), is that people act with intentionality and values. The humanistic theory of learning involves the concept of learning through watching the behavior of others and what results from that behavior, so learning comes about as a result of observation (Barrett, 2006).
  3. 3. Figures in Humanistic models of Learning •Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970): Considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology
  4. 4. • He is famous for proposing that human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. The four levels (lower-order needs) are considered physiological needs, while the top level is considered growth needs. The lower level needs to be satisfied before higher-order. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d- needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.
  5. 5. • He believed that development of human potential, dignity and worth are ultimate concerns. • Maslow rejected behaviorist views and Freud's theories on the basis of their reductionistic approaches. He felt Freud's view of human nature was negative, and he valued goodness, nobility and reason. • Maslow's theory of learning highlighted the differences between • experiential knowledge and spectator knowledge. He regarded spectator, • or scientific knowledge to be inferior to experiential.
  6. 6. Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987)
  7. 7. • He was discouraged by the emphasis on Cognitivism in education. Rogers‘ point of view emphasized the inclusion of feelings and emotions in education. • He believed that the highest levels of significant learning included personal involvement so they could change attitudes, behavior, and in some cases, even the personality of the learner. Learning needed to be evaluated by the learner and take on meaning as part of the total experience.
  8. 8. “Tell me how you feel” is much more important statement to humanists rather than “Tell me what you think”
  9. 9. • Constructivism is a theory of learning which posits that students learn by actively constructing their own knowledge and concepts cannot simply be transferred from teachers to students they have to be conceived.(von Glasersfeld 1996; Fosnot 1996; Duffy and Cunning-ham 1996) • It is a school of thought that emphasizes both the learner’s role in constructing meaning out of their social interactions with the environment.
  10. 10. What is the role of mind??
  11. 11. • Thus, in constructivism, the familiar and inaccurate metaphor of the mind as a container waiting to be filled is replaced by the metaphor of the mind as an agent actively seeking to satisfy its curiosity and resolve troubling issues.
  12. 12. What does THAT mean in learning???
  13. 13. Constructivism is the idea that, learning doesn’t just happen by the traditional methods of teachers standing in front of the class and lecturing.
  14. 14. Two types of Constructivism: 1-Cognitive Constructivism: Learners must inductively discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their own. 2-Social Constructivism: Emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing both cognitive and emotional images of reality.
  15. 15. • Piaget believed that children learn through organization and schemas. He believed that by organizing concepts and ideas, children place them into schemas. He believed that children are in control of the knowledge that they are provided and move forward in construct their own learning by taking part in social activities and exploration. For PIAGET: •Learning is a developmental process that involves change, self generation and construction each building on prior learning experiences.
  16. 16. Piaget’s constructivism: • Piaget’s constructivism offers a window into what children are interested in, and able to achieve, at different stages of their development. Piaget suggests that children have very good reasons not to abandon their worldviews just because someone else, be it an expert, tells them they’re wrong.
  17. 17. He is the champion of constructivism
  18. 18. • Children thinking and meaning making is socially constructed and emerges out of their social interactions with the environment. Developed the social cognition theory which “asserts that culture is the prime determinant of individual development” and it effects our learning development. Vygotsky theorized that a child’s cultural upbringing greatly effects their learning development. Vygotsky believed that learning needs to be engaging. He believed that learning takes place as children are interacting with each other and exploring their environment and it is simultaneous to social interaction and exploration. In other words, he did not feel as though one was more important than the other.
  19. 19. Zone of Proximal Development:  The ZPD is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. The distance between learners existing developmental state and their potential development.  A learner has not yet learned but is capable of learning with appropriate stimuli.
  20. 20. He believed that learning should be engaging to the students… they will learn better if they are interested. He believed in “educating the whole child, physically, mentally, and socially, and not just on the dispensation of facts and information” (Cushman et al 395)
  21. 21. What does Constructivism mean for Teachers? “In a constructivist setting, the role of the teacher is to order to engage the student’s interest. He assists the students in developing new insights and connecting them with their previous learning” (Hanley)
  22. 22. Constructivism: Pros and Cons: Advantages: Each person in the world builds their own knowledge. Focuses on student- centered learning Teacher guides students in building their own understanding and knowledge. Students actively engaged in their learning process
  23. 23. Disadvantages:  Lack of teacher preparation for constructivist classrooms  Difficult to break the cycle of those who have been taught in a classroom where they were expected to solely absorb information.
  24. 24. References: Brooks, Jaqueline, and Martin Brooks. "Constructivism." Funderstanding: Education and Training for Active Learners. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://www.funderstanding.com/content/constructivism>. Cashman, Thomas J., Glenda A. Gunter, Randolph E. Gunter, and Gary B. Shelly. Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom, Fourth Edition (Shelly Cashman Series). 4 ed. Cambridge: Course Technology, 2005. Print. "Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning." THIRTEEN. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2010. <http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub2.html>. Hanley, Susan. "On Constructivism." Townson. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <www.towson.edu/csme/mctp/Essays/Constructivism.txt>.
  25. 25. Smith, Mark. " jerome bruner and the process of education ." contents @ the informal education homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://www.infed.org/thinkers/bruner.htm>. "Vygotsky and Social Cognition." Funderstanding: Education and Training for Active Learners. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2010. <http://www.funderstanding.com/content/vygotsky-and-social-cognition>. http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/fellows/ullrich/webquest/ScienceLesson.html http://www.weac.org/News_and_Publications/education_news/1996- 1997/under.aspx
  26. 26. Cr by: Zahra Bayani