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Rflp

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Rflp

  1. 2. “ RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM” PRESENTED BY KAUSAR FAROOQ BS MT 3 RD YEAR 6 TH SEMESTER
  2. 3. WHAT IS RFLP: <ul><li>The term Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism , or RFLP refers to a difference between two or more samples of homologous DNA molecules arising from differing locations of restriction sites, and to a related laboratory technique by which these segments can be distinguished . </li></ul>
  3. 4. Cont…. <ul><li>Commonly pronounced “rif-lip”. </li></ul><ul><li>Its analysis was the first DNA profiling technique cheap enough to see widespread application. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an important tool in genome mapping. </li></ul><ul><li>Localization of genes for genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of risk for disease, and paternity testing. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism: <ul><li>A restriction enzyme cuts the DNA molecules at every occurrence of a particular sequence, called restriction site. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, HindII enzyme cuts at GTGCAC or GTTAAC. </li></ul><ul><li>If we apply a restriction enzyme on DNA, it is cut at every occurrence of the restriction site into a million restriction fragments each a few thousands nucleotides long. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Cont.. <ul><li>Any mutation of a single nucleotide may destroy or create the site(CTGCAC or CTTAAC for HindII) and alter the length of the corresponding fragment. </li></ul><ul><li>The term polymorphism refers to the slight differences between individuals, in base pair sequences of common genes. </li></ul><ul><li>RFLP analysis is the detection of the change in the length of the restriction fragments. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>RFLP analysis may be subdivided into single- (SLP) and multi-locus probe (MLP) paradigms. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, the SLP method is preferred over MLP because it is more sensitive, easier to interpret and capable of analyzing mixed-DNA samples. </li></ul>
  7. 8. ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE: <ul><li>The basic technique for detecting RFLPs involves fragmenting a sample of DNA by a restriction enzyme, which can recognize and cut DNA wherever a specific short sequence occurs, in a process known as a restriction digestion. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting DNA fragments are then separated by length through a process known as agarose gel electrophoresis. </li></ul><ul><li>Then transferred to a membrane via the Southern blot procedure </li></ul>
  8. 9. ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE cont.. <ul><li>Hybridization of the membrane to a labeled DNA probe then determines the length of the fragments which are complementary to the probe. </li></ul><ul><li>Each fragment length is considered an allele, and can be used in genetic analysis. </li></ul>
  9. 10. HOW IT WORKS
  10. 12. Gel-Electrophoresis: <ul><li>DNA is cut into fragments using an enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>The cut DNA is put on a Gel material </li></ul><ul><li>An electric current is applied on the Gel </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is negatively charge </li></ul><ul><li>DNA fragments will start moving towards the </li></ul><ul><li>positively charged side </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller fragments move faster </li></ul><ul><li>After some time, we have a separation of the </li></ul><ul><li>different fragment lengths </li></ul>
  11. 13. DNA Sample: <ul><li>Some cells are obtained by DNA extraction technique </li></ul>
  12. 14. Restriction Enzyme: <ul><li>A restriction enzyme is used to cut the DNA into fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Hind III restriction site is A AGCTT </li></ul>
  13. 15. Apply Enzyme: <ul><li>DNA sample and Hind III are put together in a tube. </li></ul><ul><li>The tube is shaken by rotation for DNA and Hind III to mix. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Water Bath: <ul><li>The tube is put on a plate floating on water at 37 ° C. </li></ul><ul><li>It is left for 30 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>This is needed for the Hind III reaction to take place </li></ul>
  15. 19. Preparing the Gel: <ul><li>In the meantime, we prepare the Gel. </li></ul><ul><li>Agarose powder is the basic substance for making the Gel . </li></ul>
  16. 20. Preparing the Gel: <ul><li>The powder is mixed with water in a container </li></ul>
  17. 21. Preparing the Gel: <ul><li>The container is heated until the powder completely dissolves in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>The solution becomes clear . </li></ul>
  18. 22. Preparing the Gel: <ul><li>The liquid Gel is poured into the inner box. </li></ul><ul><li>A comb like piece is put at the edge of the inner box. </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid Gel is left to cool and solidif . </li></ul><ul><li>When the Gel solidifies, the comb will create wells for the DNA samples to be put . </li></ul>
  19. 23. Gel Ready: <ul><li>Fill the H shaped container with water </li></ul><ul><li>Remove comb </li></ul>
  20. 24. Putting DNA on the Gel <ul><li>DNA samples mixed with colored solution nand UV reactive solution </li></ul><ul><li>DNA samples inserted into wells </li></ul><ul><li>A sample DNA containing only specific fragments (called ladder) can be used for comparison </li></ul>original uncut DNA DNA cut by Hind III ladder 1 ladder 2
  21. 25. Run the Gel: <ul><li>Apply electric current </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is negatively charged </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments will migrate toward the positive charge </li></ul><ul><li>Small fragments move faster </li></ul>
  22. 26. DNA Fragments Move: <ul><li>The colored solution provides an indication to how much the DNA has traveled on the Gel. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Viewing: <ul><li>Gel can be viewed under UV light. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Viewing <ul><li>Original uncut DNA sample makes a sharp band at the beginning (one big fragment) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sample cut with Hind III makes s smear (lots of fragments of all sizes) </li></ul><ul><li>Ladders are used for comparison (they contain specific fragments) </li></ul><ul><li>We could run it for a longer time to achieve better separation </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is most suited to studies at the intraspecific level or among closely related taxa. Presence and absence of fragments resulting from changes in recognition sites are used identifying species or populations.   </li></ul>CONCLUSION
  26. 30. THANK YOU

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