Historical background of elementary teacher education
2. Among the issues concerning the quality of
education, teacher education has been
identified as the single most important
variable in any effort aimed at improving the
quality of education. The assumption
undergirding the emphasis on teacher
education is that the quality of, education
which children receive is directly linked to the
knowledge, attitude, professional skills and
beliefs of the teachers.
3. Earlier, teacher-training institutions had been
offering a one-year program leading to the
Primary Teaching Certificate (PTC) for teachers in
grades one to five or the Certificate of Teaching
(CT) for teachers in grades six to eight. While the
PTC course needs 10 years of education for
admission to it, the CT course requires 12 years
and an FA/FSc certificate. Currently, teacher
education institutions/departments are offering
associate degree in education (ADE) and B.Ed 4
years in elementary teacher for elementary
4. The National Council for Teacher Education has defined teacher
education as – A programme of education, research and training
of persons to teach from pre-primary to higher education level.
Teacher education is a programme that is related to the
development of teacher proficiency and competence that would
enable and empower the teacher to meet the requirements of the
profession and face the challenges therein.
According to Goods Dictionary of Education Teacher education
means, ―all the formal and non-formal activities and
experiences that help to qualify a person to assume
responsibilities of a member of the educational profession or to
discharge his responsibilities more effectively. In 1906-1956,
the program of teacher preparation was called teacher training.
Teacher Education= Teaching Skills + Pedagogical theory +
5. would include providing training and practice
in the different techniques, approaches and
strategies that would help the teachers to
plan and impart instruction, provide
appropriate reinforcement and conduct
effective assessment. It includes effective
classroom management skills, preparation
and use of instructional materials and
6. includes the philosophical, sociological and
psychological considerations that would
enable the teachers to have a sound basis for
practicing the teaching skills in the
classroom. The theory is stage specific and is
based on the needs and requirements that
are characteristic of that stage.
7. include the techniques, strategies and
approaches that would help teachers to grow in
the profession and also work towards the growth
of the profession. It includes soft skills,
counseling skills, interpersonal skills, computer
skills, information retrieving and management
skills and above all lifelong learning skills. An
amalgamation of teaching skills, pedagogical
theory and professional skills would serve to
create the right knowledge, attitude and skills in
teachers, thus promoting holistic development.
8. Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service
and in-service components are complimentary to each other.
According to the International
Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher education (1987),
―Teacher education can be considered in three phases: Pre-
service, Induction and In-service. The three phases are
considered as parts of a continuous process.
The teacher has to acquire not only knowledge, but also skills
that are called ―tricks of the trade.
Teacher education is broad and comprehensive. it is meant to be
involved in various community programmes and extension
activities, adult education and non-formal education
programmes, literacy and development activities of the society.
9. In order to prepare teachers who are competent
to face the challenges of the dynamic society,
Teacher education has to keep abreast of recent
developments and trends.
The crux of the entire process of teacher
education lies in its curriculum, design, structure
in several cognate disciplines. However the
knowledge base in teacher education does not
comprise only an admixture of concepts and
principles from other disciplines,
10. Teacher education has to become more
sensitive to the emerging demands from the
Encouraging, supportive and humane
facilitator in teaching learning situations who
enables learners (students) to discover their
talents, to realize their physical and
intellectual potentialities to the fullest, to
develop character and desirable social and
human values to function as responsible
11. Care for children, and who love to be with them;
Understand children within social, cultural and political contexts;
View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience;
Understand the way learning occurs, possible ways of creating
conductive conditions for learning, differences among students in
respect of the kind, pace and styles of learning.
View knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of
Be receptive and constantly learning.
View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and
knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective
12. Own responsibility towards society, and work to build a better world.
Appreciate the potential of productive work and hands-on experience as a
pedagogic medium both inside and outside the classroom.
Analyze the curricular framework, policy implications and texts.
Provide opportunities to observe and engage with children, communicate with and
relate to children.
Provide opportunities for self-learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of
new ideas; developing capacities for self directed learning and the ability to think,
be self-critical and to work in groups
Provide opportunities for understanding self and others.developing the ability for
self analysis, self-evaluation, adaptability, flexibility, creativity and innovation.
Provide opportunities to enhance understanding, knowledge and examine
disciplinary knowledge and social realities, relate subject matter with the social
milieu and develop critical thinking.
13. Elementary education refers to the first phase
of compulsory education that children obtain
during the few years of starting schooling.
This education has specific goals that meet
the special needs that children have.
Elementary schools provide children with safe
environments to grow in, as well as equipping
them with motivation and skills that enable
them to handle individual circumstances.
14. Humanitarian emergencies, especially
conflict. The need to fulfill the right to
education is greatest in humanitarian crises.
More than 40 per cent of out-of school
children live in conflict-affected poor
countries, and millions are forced out of
school by natural disasters each year. In
emergency situations, education can save and
sustain lives. A safe school environment can
give children a sense of normalcy during a
15. Girls face a unique set of barriers to education,
such as child marriage, and expectations related
to domestic labour, not to mention unsafe travel
and a lack of sanitary facilities. Many countries
under-value girls’ education, with the result that
fewer girls enroll and those who do are more
likely to drop out. Some 34 million adolescent
girls are out of school around the world, and
women make up nearly two thirds (almost 500
million) of the world’s illiterate adults. The
gender gap has significantly narrowed in primary
education but there has been limited progress at
the secondary level.
16. Poverty and vulnerability are pushing far too
many young children out of school and into
the world of work. Some children remain in
school, but are disadvantaged doubling up
studies with work.
Sometimes children are exposed to the worst
forms of labor that is damaging to their
physical, mental and emotional well-being.
17. to make it possible for the pupils to acquire learning strategies
and to motivate them to lifelong learning;
to stimulate creative thinking, logical reasoning and problem
solving in pupils;
to guide pupils towards engaging in effective and open
communication on all possible issues;
to develop the pupils’ ability to cooperate and to respect their
own as well as others’ work and achievements;
to prepare the pupils to manifest themselves as independent,
free and responsible individuals who exercise their rights and
meet their obligations;
18. to create in pupils the need to express positive feelings in their
behaviour and conduct when undergoing various situations in
life; to develop in them perceptiveness and sensitive relations
towards other people, the environment and nature;
to teach the pupils to develop their physical, mental and social
health actively, protect it and be responsible for it;
to guide the pupils towards tolerance of and consideration for
other people, their cultures and spiritual values, to teach them to
live together with others;
to help the pupils to become familiar with and develop their own
abilities according to their realistic possibilities and to utilize
them along with their acquired knowledge and skills when
making decisions on the their own life and profession
19. To prepare teachers who:
◦ respect the learning needs of all children and cater to
◦ Help children gain confidence and challenge them to
◦ know their subject well and proficient in the language
of instruction are reflective practitioners,
◦ To take a pro-active role in systemic reforms in
education to create synergy with schools and
institutes of higher learning
20. Assist student teachers to develop their own praxis by linking theory
along with field experiences in real contexts.
Promote self learning and independent thinking by consciously moving
‘implementation’ mode to ‘creation’ mode.
Provide student teachers with time and opportunities to reflect to help
them reconstruct their experiences.
Ensure student teachers attain a sound knowledge base and proficiency
Promote a view of learning as a search for meaning out of multiple
Engage student teachers in analyzing school curriculum and text books
with respect to societal needs and children’s personal needs
21. Learn to use textbooks as a pretext for organizing meaningful learning
experiences within and outside classrooms to help children construct their
Prepare student teachers to care for children, enjoy being with them and being
sensitive to their problems and needs
Build capacities of student teachers to tap into a variety of learning sites and
create a range of resources catering to diverse groups of learners
Sensitize student teachers to recognize inclusive classrooms with social, cultural
and linguistic diversity as a strength and resource
Train student teachers in alternative pedagogical skills and classroom
management techniques that would promote a culture of peace in classrooms
Impart principles of sustainable development to student teachers and foster
positive attitudes and values towards environment.
Guide student teachers towards commitment to the profession and its ethical code
22. It is also one of the most important teaching
positions. An elementary teacher has the
potential to positively influence both the
children and parents they work with every
Elementary education teachers have many job
duties beyond just teaching children. They
must first plan and develop lessons that are
age appropriate after assessing each
student’s strengths and weaknesses
23. Early childhood educators work hard with
parents and administrators to assist students
to learn in the best way possible. Some
students have mental, emotional or physical
He is responsible for creating and
implementing classroom rules to enforce
appropriate behavior in class.
24. Elementary teacher is crucial to each child is
that they are some of the first teachers that a
child will encounter.
He used fun and unique approaches to
learning to help keep each student interested
and engaged in learning.
teachers help students develop appropriate
social skills that will help them throughout
their entire education.
25. The Philosophical basis provides insights to
the student teachers about the implications
of- the various schools of philosophy, ancient
and modern philosophical thoughts,
educational thoughts of philosophical
thinkers on education and its various aspects
such as curriculum construction and
26. The Sociological basis helps the student
teachers to understand the role of society and
its dynamics in the educational system of a
nation and the world at large. It encompasses
the ideals that influence national and
27. The Psychological basis helps the student
teachers develop insights into students’
psychological make-up. This enables the
student teachers to understand their self,
their students and the learning situations
such that they are able to provide meaningful
and relevant learning experiences to their
28. Teacher education is concerned with the aspects
who (Teacher Educator),
whom (Student teacher),
and how (Teaching Strategy)
Teacher education is dependent upon the quality
of teacher educators. The quality of pedagogical
inputs in teacher education programmes and
their effective utilization for the purpose of
preparing prospective teachers depend largely on
the professional competence.
29. Teacher education, thus, first deals with the
preparation of effective teacher educators.
Teacher education reaches out to the student
teachers by providing the relevant knowledge,
attitude and skills to function effectively in their
teaching profession. It aims at creating the
necessary attitude in student teachers towards
the stakeholders of the profession. It empowers
the student teachers with the skills (teaching and
soft skills) that would enable them to carry on
the functions in the most efficient and effective