Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU

Director Gandhara Hindko Academy (Private -Public partnership) project
13 de Dec de 2014

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Learning By Dr. Zafar Iqbal, Ph.D Education MEDIU

  1. By Zafar Iqbal
  2.  Learning (definitions)  Theories of Learning  Types of Learning  Laws of Learning  Ways to increase learning  Significant factors in learning and Application of learning theories.
  3.  the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.  "these children experienced difficulties in learning"  synonyms: study, studying, education, schooling, tuition, teaching, academic work, instruction, training; research, investigation;
  4.  Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines.
  5.  Learning is a stance taken by an individual that allows for the acquisition of information, attitudes, and practices, through observation, seeking previous knowledge, searching out guides, and looking within as well as without.
  6. A change that occurs in response to thinking or other sensual stimuli.
  7.  Learning is a lifelong process of gaining and using information presented to us. The ability to learn is endless, as long as the desire is present. Learning is only successful when the information gained is used and understood.
  8. Learning is the process by which one acquires, consumes, and stores or accepts information.  Our experiences with learned information compose our bodies of knowledge.  Learning is a process unique to each individual.  Some learn quickly, scanning the information and mastering the concept or skill seemingly effortlessly. Others stumble while processing information, taking longer to grasp the concept or requiring numerous exposures over a sustained period of time.
  9. Learning is the accumulating of experiences and the consequential growth and new understanding of the world around us.
  10. Think for 3 Minutes and set your own definition of Learning.
  11. 1. Behaviorism 2. Cognitivism 3. Social Learning Theory 4. Multiple Intelligences
  12. • It is confined to observable and measurable behavior. • Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors and context-independent. • Biological basis for learning. • Focuses on observable behaviors.
  13. Behaviorism in the classroom • Rewards and Punishments • Responsibility for student learning rests directly with the teacher. • Lecture-Based and Highly Structured
  14. • It does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed. • Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher-centric environment. • One size fits all. • Knowledge itself is given and absolute. • There is programmed instruction and teacher-proofing.
  15. How Important is the theory of behaviorism for our School?
  16. • Grew in response to Behaviorism. • Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols. • Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful and memorable way. • Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection.
  17. • Inquiry-Oriented Projects Cognitivism in the classroom • Provide opportunities for the testing of hypotheses. • Curiosity is encouraged.
  18. • Grew out of Cognitivism. • Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences. • Social Learning Theory is the basis of the movement against violence in media and video games.
  19. • Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model. • When they identify with a nurturing and competent model, children feel pleased and proud. • When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.
  20. • Collaborative Learning and Group Work • Modeling Responses and Expectations • There are opportunities to observe experts in action.
  21. • All people are born with 8 intelligences: 1. Verbal-Linguistic 2. Visual-Spatial 3. Logical-Mathematical 4. Kinesthetic 5. Musical 6. Naturalist 7. Interpresonal 8. Intrapersonal • Enable students to power their strengths and purposefully target and develop their weaknesses.
  22. Multiple intelligences in the classroom • Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums. • Student-Centered Classroom • Authentic Assessment • Self-Directed Learning
  23. • Lack of quantifiable evidence that MI exist. • Lack of evidence that use of MI as a curricular and methodological approach has any discernible impact on learning. • Suggestive of a departure from core curricula and standards.
  24. Group Task A How Learning Theories may be useful for teachers? B Five definitions of Learning. C Cognitivism: Application and Association in our daily classes. Give Examples D Social learning theory in the classroom. How we can integrate this with our Lesson Plan E How we can develop MI Multiple Intelligence in Learning. Suggests activities
  25.  Three Major Types of Learning   1) Learning through association - Classical Conditioning  2) Learning through consequences – Operant Conditioning  3) Learning through observation – Modeling/Observational Learning
  26.  Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. Albert Bandura, who is known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, identified this basic form of learning in 1961. The importance of observational learning because it may help, especially children, acquire new responses by observing others' behavior.  Bobo doll  This form of learning does not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a model. A social model can be a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher, but— particularly in childhood—a model is someone of authority or higher status.
  27.  Consequences are superb teachers. Their lessons touch you profoundly and stay with you for life.  Many of the abstract concepts you come across are quickly forgotten. The consequences you experience, on the other hand, are nearly impossible to forget.  Through consequences you learn, in a personally meaningful way, what works and what doesn’t. Through consequences you learn what’s important and why
  28.  Law of Readiness The Law of Readiness means a person can learn when physically and mentally adjusted (ready) to receive stimuli. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they will not learn much if they see no reason for learning.  If trainees have a strong purpose, a clear objective and a sound reason for learning, they usually make more progress than trainees who lack motivation. When trainees are ready to learn, they are more willing to participate in the learning process, and this simplifies the instructor's job. If outside responsibilities or worries weigh heavily on trainees' minds or if their personal problems seem unsolvable, they may have little interest in learning
  29.  Law of Exercise The Law of Exercise stresses the idea that repetition is basic to the development of adequate responses; things most often repeated are easiest remembered.  The mind can rarely recall new concepts or practices after a single exposure, but every time it is practiced, learning continues and is enforced. The instructor must provide opportunities for trainees to practice or repeat the task.  Repetition consists of many types of activities, including recall, review, restatement, manual drill and physical application.  Remember that practice makes permanent, not perfect unless the task is taught correctly.
  30.  Law of Effect This law involves the emotional reaction of the learner. Learning will always be much more effective when a feeling of satisfaction, pleasantness, or reward accompanies or is a result of the learning process.  Learning is strengthened when it is accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and that it is weakened when it is associated with an unpleasant experience. An experience that produces feelings of defeat, frustration, anger or confusion in a trainee is unpleasant. Instructors should be cautious about using negative motivation.
  31. 1. Acknowledge your surroundings 2. Assessing your environment, 3. Preparing yourself for the learning ahead. 4. PREPARATION ( timing, book, text, etc) 5. Travel 6. Listen
  32. Group Task A Select the Learning style for you and your students. B Suggest the activities to increase the learning C Explain the Law of Exercise D Give examples of Law of Association E Describe the Types of Learning
  33. Medical IGCSE Engineering Commerce ICT Mathematics