Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing Presentation
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Additive Manufacturing | 3D Printing
Presentation · July 2020
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Meer Zafarullah Noohani
Mehran University of Engineering and Technology SZAB Campus
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Kaleem Ullah Magsi
Mehran University of Engineering and Technology
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•The process of joining materials to make three dimensional (3D) objects from a CAD
model or digital 3D model
•Commonly known as “3D printing”
•Manufacturing components with virtually no geometric limitations or tools.
•AM uses an additive process
•Distinguished from traditional subtractive machining techniques
WHAT IS ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING?
Each successive layer bonds to the preceding layer of melted or partially melted
It is possible to use different substances for layering material, including metal
powder, thermoplastics, ceramics, composites, glass and even edibles like chocolate.
•Additive Manufacturing, aka 3D printing began development in the 1980’s by
pioneer Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation.
•First called Rapid Prototyping (RP) for its fast and more cost effective methods,
the name was changed in 1983 to 3D Printing with Hull’s invention of the SLA
•In the early 2000’s the recognized name 3D printing became known as Additive
Manufacturing, and has continued to grow greatly over the last decade.
•3D Printing is the new era of casting and metal working processes
INCREASING PRESSURE ON MANUFACTURING
• Shorter time to market
• Higher performance requirements
• Increased product life, durability
• Reduced weight
• Lower cost
• Higher yield and quality
• Improved energy efficiency
• Less waste, environmentally friendly
Potential benefits from additive manufacturing
• Reduced machining time, energy, & cost
• Reduced material consumption
• Material solutions and combinations not
• Increased part complexity
• Increasingly complex part geometries
• Expanded material options
• Manufacturability concerns
• Slow adoption of new techniques
• Qualification of new processes
AM INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
Used in many industries, Additive Manufacturing is helping Industrial growth
by making manufactured parts easier and faster to produce and help businesses
show realistic models.
VARIOUS 3D- MACHINES
1. Milling machine – 3 axis
2. Milling machine Monofab SRM 20
3. Vulcan A550 Box Furnace
4. 3D Printer Ultimaker 2+/ 2+ Extended
5. Sciaky's Giant Metal 3D Printer
•3D Printing makes it to NASA space station!!
•The company Made In Space, designed the first 3D Printer
with capabilities to be able to print in zero gravity
•With this printer in space engineers can email 3D CAD files to
the space station where the astronauts can print things like
tools for the applications they are working on, instead of
having to wait for the next support mission.
• The future of Medicine
• 3D printing is in developmental stages for creating body replacement parts for
hips, knees and other artificial replacements.
• Cornell University used silicone as a material and was able to print a realistic ear.
• Current ongoing research is looking to the future capabilities for when your sick
and need medicine, all it will take is a simple click of a print button and the
medicine you need will be printed right at your home.
• The Next BIG Thing…
• 3D Printed clothes and cars
•“According to futurists, additive manufacturing will make the life we know
today barley recognizable in 50 – 70 years.”
•“We’re already printing skin, kidneys, and replicas of a beating human heart. If
a person loses a limb, we’ll be able to print, layer by layer, a replacement. Its
theoretically possible.” (Jack Uldrich)
•While the US is working on making a 3D printed car China has already printed
houses, and Holland has printed the first cheeseburger, Asutralia has
manufactured first jet engine
•3D printing is continuously growing and is the future of our consumer
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING GENERIC PROCESS
All AM parts must start from a software model (CAD )that fully describes the external geometry. This can
involve the use of almost any professional CAD solid modeling software, but the output must be a 3D solid
or surface representation. Reverse engineering equipment (e.g., laser and optical scanning) can also be
used to create this representation.
Conversion to STL Nearly every AM machine accepts the STL file format, which has become a de facto
standard, and nowadays nearly every CAD system can output such a file format. This file describes the
external closed surfaces of the original CAD model and forms the basis for calculation of the slices.
Transfer to AM Machine and STL File Manipulation The STL file describing the part must be transferred
to the AM machine. Here, there may be some general manipulation of the file so that it is the correct size,
position, and orientation for building
Machine Setup, the AM machine must be properly set up prior to the build process. Such settings would
relate to the build parameters like the material constraints, energy source, layer thickness, timings, etc.
Building the part is mainly an automated process and the machine can largely carry on without
supervision. Only superficial monitoring of the machine needs to take place at this time to ensure no
errors have taken place like running out of material, power or software glitches, etc.
Removal Once the AM machine has completed the build, the parts must be
This may require interaction with the machine, which may have safety interlocks to
ensure for example that the operating temperatures are sufficiently low or that
there are no actively moving parts
SOFTWARE USED FOR AM
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Additive Manufacturing processes are classified into seven categories
1) Vat Photopolymerisation/Steriolithography
2) Material Jetting
3) Binder jetting
4) Material extrusion
5) Powder bed fusion
6) Sheet lamination
7) Directed energy deposition
•Laser beam traces a cross-section of the part pattern on the
surface of the liquid resin
•SLA's elevator platform descends
•A resin-filled blade sweeps across the cross section of the
part, re-coating it with fresh material
•Immersed in a chemical bath Stereolithography requires
the use of supporting structures
•Drop on demand method
•The print head is positioned above build platform
•Material is deposited from a nozzle which moves horizontally
across the build platform
•Material layers are then cured or hardened using ultraviolet (UV)
•Droplets of material solidify and make up the first layer.
•Good accuracy and surface finishes
A glue or binder is jetted from an inkjet style print head
Roller spreads a new layer of powder on top of the
The subsequent layer is then printed and is stitched to
the previous layer by the jetted binder
The remaining loose powder in the bed supports
•Fuse deposition modelling (FDM)
•Material is drawn through a nozzle, where it is heated
and is then deposited layer by layer
•First layer is built as nozzle deposits material where
required onto the cross sectional area.
•The following layers are added on top of previous
•Layers are fused together upon deposition as the
material is in a melted state.
Powder Bed Fusion
Selective laser sintering (SLS)
Selective laser melting (SLM)
Electron beam melting (EBM)
❖No support structures required
1. A layer, typically 0.1mm thick of material is spread over the build platform.
2. The SLS machine preheats the bulk powder material in the powder bed
3. A laser fuses the first layer
4. A new layer of powder is spread.
5. Further layers or cross sections are fused and added.
•Metal sheets are used
•Laser beam cuts the contour of each layer
•Glue activated by hot rollers
1. The material is positioned in place on the cutting bed.
2. The material is bonded in place, over the previous layer, using the adhesive.
3. The required shape is then cut from the layer, by laser or knife.
4. The next layer is added.
DIRECTED ENERGY DEPOSITION
•Consists of a nozzle mounted on a multi axis arm
•Nozzle can move in multiple directions
•Material is melted upon deposition with a laser or electron beam
1. A4 or 5 axis arm with nozzle moves around a fixed object.
2. Material is deposited from the nozzle onto existing surfaces of the object.
3. Material is either provided in wire or powder form.
4. Material is melted using a laser, electron beam or plasma arc upon deposition.
5. Further material is added layer by layer and solidifies, creating or repairing
new material features on the existing object.
Complexity for free
Potential elimination of tooling
Elimination of production steps
Free of complexity
Variety is free
No assembly required
Little lead time
Little skill manufacturing
COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
Cost of geometric complexity.
No need of assemblage.
Time and cost efficiency in production run.
•Almost any shape can be manufactured.
•No constraints such as fixtures, cutter reachability, diverse tooling etc. like in
•Easy to make changes in model by just editing the CAD model.
•Capable of producing variety of products without making setup changes.
COST OF GEOMETRIC COMPLEXITY
•Very less influence on cost of product due to complexity of the product.
•Easy to create complex shapes and product parts by just using the CAD software
The dimensional accuracy determines the deviation of the finished model when
compared to the original digital model.
Very less or negligible tolerances are provided in AM.
Parts to Nanoscale accuracy can be manufacture with precise 3D printers.
NO NEED OFASSEMBLAGE
•Capable of producing single-part assemblies.
•The parts and joints are printed in place and are suspended by support material
that must be removed in postprocessing.
•When compared with traditional machining, it reduces the cost of assembling the
TIME & COST EFFICIENCY IN PRODUCTION RUN
•Unlike most of the traditional machining processes, AM is suitable for low volume
•On demand and on site production in AM reduces the inventory cost and time required.
•Very less material wastage as compared to other manufacturing processes(ie maximum
Deloitte Insight is a USA restaurant that makes food using Additive manufacturing
Additively manufactured food may be more of a novelty than an industry game-
World's first 3D printed Jet engine
Australian researchers have created the world's
first 3D-printed jet engine in a manufacturing
breakthrough that engineers expect will lead to
cheaper, lighter and more fuel-efficient jets.
Created by Monash University in collaboration
with Amaero Engineering in 2015.
Safran Helicopter Engines recently launched a new range of
helicopter engines, called Anteo-1K.
These engines incorporate 3D printed parts, including guide
vanes and parts inside the combustion chamber.
Additive manufacturing has allowed Safran to save production
costs as well as to improve engine performance.
These 3D printed engines created are around 30% more
powerful than those previously produced.
ADDIDAS 3D PRINTED SHOES
Addidas produces 3D printed shoes
They started working on it in 2013
Now commercially available
3D PRINTED HOUSE
A company in China has used giant 3D printers to make 10 full-sized, detached
single-storey houses in a day in 2014.
As per the company each house can be printed for under $5,000.
Russia also made a home using AM within 24 hours in March 2017, it is named as
Vocative 3D home
3D PRINTED GUN
In 2012, the U.S.-based team Defense made guns and rifles using additive
USA legalized in 2012.
3D PRINTED DRONE BY STRATASYS
In 2015 Aurora Flight Sciences, specialists in advanced systems of unmanned aerial vehicles, unveiled
the first unmanned aircraft with jet propulsion.
It can fly faster than 240km/h, in collaboration with Stratasys.
This extraordinary aircraft is called the UAV.
This vehicle consisted of more than 80% 3D printed parts, manufactured through fused deposition
HOVER SURF FLYING CAR
Hoversurf are a company creating incredible hovercraft, having previously
developed the Scorpion-3, a single seat aircraft that can fly a person.
However, Hoversurf have one-upped themselves this time, announcing plans to
release a part 3D printed flying car called the Formula
WORLD-FIRST 3D PRINTED AIRLESS BICYCLE
Airless bicycle manufactured in 2014 using AM.
Nowadays Bicycles and Motor bikes being manufacture globally using AM.
3D PRINTED PROSTHETICS
A prosthetic hand can cost thousands of
dollars; however, a 3D printed prosthesis
could be made for as little as $50.
3D PRINTED PROSTHETIC LEG
There are not a large number of prosthetic legs because most 3D
printing plastics commercially available aren’t strong enough to
support body weight.
Organizations with access to more advanced 3D printers and
materials are starting to produce leg prostheses that are both artistic
and cheaper than traditional prostheses.
In 2017 A man was attached 3D Printed Prosthetic Leg in the UAE.