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A quick and basic introduction to:
#MVNA (Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator)
#MVNE (Mobile Virtual Network Enabler)
#MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator)
Often described as smaller operators, they provide mobile services similar to mobile operators, and are known as mobile virtual network operators, or MVNO
First launched in the UK in 1999, MVNO's has spread across the globe, and at the end of 2019, there were more than 1300 MVNOs, in 82 countries.
Opposite normal mobile operators, a MVNO does not own spectrum, or radio network infrastructure (mobile antennas)
Instead, they buy wholesale access from a telecom network operator, or through an entity known as a Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator (MVNA)
A MVNA buy wholesale access from a telecom network operator, on behalf of several MVNOs, in order to achieve a large discount, and then resell, the network access to each individual MVNO.
The MVNE platform provide the MVNO's with technical solutions, such as customer support, billing systems, SIM management, and so on. enabling the MVNO's to setup, operate and charge the subscribers.
The MVNO's can now provide their services to end-users, or to machines (IoT) (M2M), under their own control, price package, and brand