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GHERISSI, HEGAZI,.Y. (2014)
PhD of Philosophy
Rights of citizenship -democratic governance -social cohesion - the rule of
law - Human Rights- Women political participation- Accountability-
”As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a
master. This expresses my idea of democracy”.
Citizenship rights are linked to elected regimes and to the recognition of human capabilities.
Consequently citizenship is considered as a policy that promotes social responsibility and
community development. The political theory of Aristotle (1998) is the most influential political
theory. Philosophers have correlated citizenship to the impact of society attitudes and culture.
However multiculturalism is not necessarily the recognition of sectarianism, equality, identity
politics, nationalism and pluralism. But citizenship cannot be granted without respect for
democratic systems that promote social cohesion and the rule of sovereignty on the basis of
political identity and legal systems
1-concept and principles of democratic governance
2-Definition and continued the concept of democracy
4-Women's Political Participation
7-Free and fair elections
9-control of power abuse
10-Bill of Rights
14-Rule of law
1-CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRATIC
Good governance and accountability are the basic principles that achieve real democracy and
development. However the political participation, the good governance, the respect for human
rights, and the effective social participation imposes on institutions to be accountable. Also,
good governance is the only sustainable way to address the challenges of development
anywhere in the world
2-DEFINITION & ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF
The concept of democracy emerged from the ancient Greeks in the city of Athens in the fifth
century BC, the Greek word Demo " Kato’s" " means the power and the rule system of
governance that empowers citizens to participate to decision making by voting and allowing
the change of laws through the Legislative Council and the regular elections in municipal
councils, trade unions and municipalities systems in Greece, and especially Athens. The
political system in the Athens Classic was known as liberal democratic election that excluded
slaves and women from participation. However the Greek democratic system allowed equal
opportunities for all and the fight against poverty. However society evolves through equal
opportunities and individual merit.
3- DEMOCRACY TYPES
Democracy types reduce direct democracy discrimination between governments and
governed, and between the state & civil society; it does promote autonomy system.
Consequently the use of Referenda is today seen as the most common appearance. However
direct democracy or pure democracy is the kind of democracy where the people govern
directly. The classical Athenian democracy or democracy refers to the direct democracy and is
based on referendums.
Democracy shows that member of political party in the democratic process has the right to
take part in the decision-making process, and usually within the government of one-party
state. Equality, freedom and the rule of law epitomize the democracy theory which was an
important feature since history.
(Aristotle. Politics/1317b, Book 6, Part II)
“These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and equal
access to legislative processes”
4- WOMEN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
There is a commitment that civic organizations have the ability to contribute to the economic
growth and to fair and equitable distribution of resources among society and halt briberies &
wrong records. Although donors recognize that small group projects increase income &
strengthen the organizational capacity of the target groups. Consequently the analytical data
impacts on community participation. Many studies have shown that women in marginalized
areas have a high chance to join small income projects and achieve gains. In addition, it is
necessary to create social network as a prerequisite for participation. However researches
confirmed that the participation in small groups strengthens community involvement and
citizenship actions. It does contribute to encourage women to be a part of their community
and to raise their voices.
The perceived value of democracy for the participation of women in politics is seen as an
Associationalism. Aristotle stated that:
"human well-being and freedom, and both are best when they can reach the affairs of society
through the administration to voluntary associations and democratic self-governance." )
Nationalism/ Associationalism "give priority to freedom in size in terms of values, but insists that
this freedom cannot be effectively achieved only with the accession of the community"
(Aristotle.,(322-384BC). Constitution Society; Book6, Part II)
Citizens in democracy
It does contribute to increase democracy highlighted by civil society and the private necessary to
focus attention on membership in the non-purposeful management for-profit associations. (Skocpol,
Democracy contributes to the economic and social wealth as well as nurturings a culture of
solidarity, social justice and quality of collaborative work in children's education and civic life.
However democracy helps women embody social development and learning system
6- UNDERSTAND DEMOCRACY
Democracy and the rule of modern democracy include:
Citizen here is a part of the decision-making on issues that affect the equality process
This means equal opportunities to achieve individual capacity without regard to race, sex, and religion;
The rules recognize the interests of the minority, the debates and discussions which are the means to
discuss culture and differences
Citizens have the right to ask Legal institutions and representatives such as elected leaders and public
officials about the reasons for their actions or decisions during the period of their public functions.
It means that all elected leaders are allowed to disclose what they are doing during the period of
function in the leadership position as well as citizens to access public meetings and information about
what is happening in public offices, which makes the reason for the decisions taken, because
transparency is a step toward accountability
7-REGULAR FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS
Regular elections help free and fair elections are an opportunity that allow citizens to
recognize competent leaders and to elect the best of them for the use of rule in an equitable
8- ECONOMIC FREEDOM
Free and fair elections contribute to equality in the economic and social opportunities,
especially for citizens with special needs.
However abuses contribute to the weakening of the economic base and the elimination of
opportunities for marginalized areas to afford their basics. But democracies are the most
important part of the economic pluralism and the freedom of common cultural values.
9-CONTROL OF POWER ABUSE
It is necessary to examine the liability of governments and the way to use the authority of
officials, such as:
Using the separation of powers;
The establishment of institutions in order to ensure the lack of power control by rulers
executive like legislative and judicial authorities, which operates according to agreed ethical
10- BILL OF RIGHTS
Law seeks to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens through constitution;
Culture of fairness toward the election results;
It is necessary to organize free and fair elections and to show flexibility in case of losing the
election and to evacuate office and to return equipment and tools that belonging the office to
the elected people
11- HUMAN RIGHTS
In contrast to dictatorships, democracies seek to protect citizens from abuse and injustice
12- MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM
The presence of multiple parties in a democratic state contributes to
expand the selection range that elect the best candidates for political office.
Multiparty is seen as an alternative of strong opposition that offers different views in the
However the lack of multi-party system leads to unilaterality, the lack of options for citizens
and to control powers that link to dictatorships
13- STATE INSTITUTIONS
State institutions such as the police and the army must be fair, impartial and not engaged in
any political party
-14 RULE OF LAW
The law requires applying law on citizens and making them subject to accountability and
justice. However the law should be equal and fair in order to protect the rule of law and to
allow citizens enjoying their rights.
Aristotle.,(322-384BC). Constitution Society; Book6, Part II
Grawal.,A.,(2005). Decentralization and Participation: The Governance of Common Pool Resources in Nepal's Terai.
Klein, A., Kiranda, Y.,Bafaki.,R.,(2011). Concepts and principles of democratic governance and accountability- A Guide
for Peer Education;
Published under the project: ‘Action for Strengthening Good Governance
and Accountability in Uganda’ by the Uganda Office of the Konrad Adenauer-Stiftung;
Skocpol, T.,(2003). “Social Provision and Civic Community: Beyond Fragmentation”. In Rieder J the Fractious Nation?
Unity and Division in Contemporary American Life Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; pp. 187-205;
Smith, M. K.,( 2014). Association, la vie associative and lifelong learning