The Human Reproductive
System
Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir
M. Pharm., Ph.D
Male Reproductive System
urinary bladder

seminal vesicles

prostate
gland

urethra
penis
rectum

epididymis

Cowper’s gla...
Male Reproductive System
(frontal view)

See p. 62 in Review book
Male Reproductive System
1. Scrotum – sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs
below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot
be...
Male Reproductive System
3. Epididymis – storage area in upper rear of
testis. Immature sperm move here to mature –
takes ...
Male Reproductive System
6. Rectum – holds wastes
7. Seminal vesicles – same job as Cowper’s
gland
8. Urinary bladder – st...
Male Reproductive System
11. Penis – male reproductive organ.
Facilitates internal fertilization
Ejaculation – muscular co...
Spermatogenesis
• Sperm production begins at puberty and
continues throughout the life of a male.
Hormones and Negative Feedback
in Males
• Negative Feedback – change that leads to
a response that causes something to
cou...
Hormone Negative Feedback System
•

What is the effect of high levels of LH?
–

•

What is the effect of high levels of
testosterone?
–

•

Testosterone is...
Another Way of Looking at Negative
Feedback in the Male Reproductive System
Brain
Pituitary gland

Male Reproductive
Organ...
Male Reproductive System and
Hormones
1.

1.

3.

Explain how LH stimulates the testes to produce
testosterone.
Circulates...
Female Reproductive System
oviduct

ovary

Urinary
bladder

uterus

urethra
vagina

cervix

rectum
Female Reproductive System
(frontal view)

See p. 61 in Review book
Female Reproductive System
1. Ovary – female gonads. Secrete
estrogen – produces secondary
characteristics, menstrual cycl...
Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs
called follicles. In each follicle is an immature
egg.
All the eggs are p...
Female Reproductive System
2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) – Each ovary is
near but not connected to oviduct. Tube
with funnel...
Female Reproductive System
4. Urinary bladder – storage of urine
5. Urethra – passage of urine to outside of
body
6. Vagin...
The Menstrual Cycle
What is the menstrual cycle?
Cycle during which an egg develops and is
released from the ovary and the...
The Menstrual Cycle
The Menstrual Cycle
1. Menstruation: Loss of egg and uterine
tissue via vagina if fertilization does not
occur
2. Follicle...
The Menstrual Cycle
3. Ovulation: High level of estrogen detected by
hypothalamus, increased LH, decreased FSH,
follicle b...
Another Way of Looking at Negative
Feedback in the Female Reproductive
System (Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle)
Brain
Pitu...
Hormones of Menstrual Cycle
What happens if fertilization occurs?
Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to maintain
p...
Ovulation to Implantation
oviduct

uterus

cervix

vagina

ovary

sperm

egg from
ruptured
follicle
follicle
Ovulation to Implantation
1. Ovary – produces estrogen &
progesterone – meiosis occurs & egg
develops
2. Egg matures in fo...
Ovulation to Implantation
4. Events in fallopian tube
a. Fertilization occurs here. Sperm lives 4-5
days (egg lives 1 day)...
Ovulation to Implantation
5. Events in uterus
a. Implantation – embryo implants/embeds into
uterine lining & secretes horm...
• Menstrual Cycle Animation
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(STDs)
1. Definition: Disease spread from one
person to another during sexual contact
2. Typ...
Child with gonorrheal infection in the eyes
Advanced syphilis
Genital herpes
Trichomonas Life Cycle
Birth control
Method of
Birth Control

How does it Work?

Abstinence

Refrain from intercourse to prevent sperm from
joini...
Birth Control
Diaphragm/Cervical Fitted cup or cap that covers the cervix to
Cap
prevent sperm from reaching egg
Birth Con...
Birth Control
IUD

Small plastic device placed in uterus containing
copper or progesterone. Prevents sperm from
entering u...
Human reproductive system (dr. y. v. ushir)
Human reproductive system (dr. y. v. ushir)
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

Human reproductive system (dr. y. v. ushir)

1.798 visualizações

Publicada em

  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

Human reproductive system (dr. y. v. ushir)

  1. 1. The Human Reproductive System Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir M. Pharm., Ph.D
  2. 2. Male Reproductive System urinary bladder seminal vesicles prostate gland urethra penis rectum epididymis Cowper’s gland testis/testes scrotum vas deferens
  3. 3. Male Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 62 in Review book
  4. 4. Male Reproductive System 1. Scrotum – sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot be produced if body is too warm. Testes move into scrotum just before birth. 2. Testis/testes – male gonads. Made up of small, coiled tubes – seminiferous tubules. 300-600 per testis. Immature sperm made here. Secrete testosterone
  5. 5. Male Reproductive System 3. Epididymis – storage area in upper rear of testis. Immature sperm move here to mature – takes 18 hours. 4. Vas deferens – tube that leads upwards from each testis into lower part of abdomen from epididymis. 5. Cowper’s gland – produces fluids that nourish sperm and protect them from the acidity of female. Combination of sperm and fluids - semen
  6. 6. Male Reproductive System 6. Rectum – holds wastes 7. Seminal vesicles – same job as Cowper’s gland 8. Urinary bladder – stores urine 9. Prostate gland – same job as Cowper’s gland and seminal vesicles 10. Urethra – passageway for excretion of urine and for sperm to leave body. Vas deferens empties into urethra
  7. 7. Male Reproductive System 11. Penis – male reproductive organ. Facilitates internal fertilization Ejaculation – muscular contractions force semen through urethra. Before, during and after ejaculation reflex actions keep outlet of bladder closed
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis • Sperm production begins at puberty and continues throughout the life of a male.
  9. 9. Hormones and Negative Feedback in Males • Negative Feedback – change that leads to a response that causes something to counteract that change • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) – stimulates testes to produce testosterone • Testosterone – stimulates development of sperm. Once there is a large number of sperm, puberty is complete.
  10. 10. Hormone Negative Feedback System
  11. 11. • What is the effect of high levels of LH? – • What is the effect of high levels of testosterone? – • Testosterone is produced Slows production of LH which in turn slows production of testosterone What is the overall outcome of this on-off negative feedback system involving LH and testosterone? – Nearly constant level of both hormones homeostasis
  12. 12. Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Male Reproductive System Brain Pituitary gland Male Reproductive Organs target cells – receptor cells LH stimulates the testes cells
  13. 13. Male Reproductive System and Hormones 1. 1. 3. Explain how LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. Circulates in the blood- reaches the testes target cells – stimulates them to produce testosterone What happens when the levels of testosterone are too high in the body? LH level drops What is negative feedback and how does it maintain homeostasis? Change in conditions triggers response in body to counteract that condition. Keeps hormones in balance
  14. 14. Female Reproductive System oviduct ovary Urinary bladder uterus urethra vagina cervix rectum
  15. 15. Female Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 61 in Review book
  16. 16. Female Reproductive System 1. Ovary – female gonads. Secrete estrogen – produces secondary characteristics, menstrual cycle Produces eggs – 2 ovaries 4cms long, 2 cms wide
  17. 17. Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs called follicles. In each follicle is an immature egg. All the eggs are present at birth. During the woman’s lifetime 500 eggs mature When an egg matures, follicle moves to surface of ovary. Follicle breaks & releases the egg – ovulation Egg can be fertilized for about 24 hours after ovulation
  18. 18. Female Reproductive System 2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) – Each ovary is near but not connected to oviduct. Tube with funnel-like opening. Cilia line it to create a current that draws the egg into the tube. Egg is fertilized in the oviduct 3. Uterus – thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ. Once egg is fertilized it finishes its development in uterus attached to uterine wall
  19. 19. Female Reproductive System 4. Urinary bladder – storage of urine 5. Urethra – passage of urine to outside of body 6. Vagina (birth canal) – leads to outside of body 7. Cervix – narrow neck of uterus 8. Rectum – passage for wastes
  20. 20. The Menstrual Cycle What is the menstrual cycle? Cycle during which an egg develops and is released from the ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized egg Menarche: first menstrual period – usually occurs between 11 and 12 Menopause: time when a woman stops menstruating, usually between 45 & 55 and is no longer able to conceive.
  21. 21. The Menstrual Cycle
  22. 22. The Menstrual Cycle 1. Menstruation: Loss of egg and uterine tissue via vagina if fertilization does not occur 2. Follicle Stage (follicular stage): lasts 10 days, FSH & LH levels increase, egg matures, follicle secretes estrogen to prepare uterus
  23. 23. The Menstrual Cycle 3. Ovulation: High level of estrogen detected by hypothalamus, increased LH, decreased FSH, follicle bursts – egg released 4. Corpus Luteum Stage (Luteal Phase): LH converts follicle to corpus luteum – secretes estrogen & progesterone. Progesterone prepares uterus. Increased progesterone keeps LH & FSH low
  24. 24. Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Female Reproductive System (Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle) Brain Pituitary gland FSH (causes egg to mature in follicle) LH (causes to egg to be let go = ovulation) ovary uterus Estrogen (causes uterine lining to thicken & build up to prepare for egg) Progesterone (helps maintain uterine lining)
  25. 25. Hormones of Menstrual Cycle What happens if fertilization occurs? Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy. After 5 weeks the embryo produces progesterone – this inhibits LH & FSH so no menstrual cycle What happens if fertilization does not occur? There is no implantation – the corpus luteum breaks down. Progesterone level drops, uterine lining breaks down – menstruation. FSH & LH are produced again – new cycle Average Menstrual Cycle is 28 days long
  26. 26. Ovulation to Implantation oviduct uterus cervix vagina ovary sperm egg from ruptured follicle follicle
  27. 27. Ovulation to Implantation 1. Ovary – produces estrogen & progesterone – meiosis occurs & egg develops 2. Egg matures in follicle of ovary 3. Ovulation – egg released from follicle – may live for 24 hours - egg moves into fallopian tube by cilia
  28. 28. Ovulation to Implantation 4. Events in fallopian tube a. Fertilization occurs here. Sperm lives 4-5 days (egg lives 1 day) b. Zygote undergoes mitosis & travels down fallopian tube within 6-10 days. Zygote is ready to implant into uterus.
  29. 29. Ovulation to Implantation 5. Events in uterus a. Implantation – embryo implants/embeds into uterine lining & secretes hormone HCG to signal its arrival b. Cell Differentiation – cells divide by mitosis & become different due to gene expression. Different embryo parts will form.
  30. 30. • Menstrual Cycle Animation
  31. 31. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) 1. Definition: Disease spread from one person to another during sexual contact 2. Types of STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, genital herpes, HIV, trichomonas 3. Reducing Risky Behavior a. Avoid sexual contact b. Avoid intravenous drug use
  32. 32. Child with gonorrheal infection in the eyes
  33. 33. Advanced syphilis
  34. 34. Genital herpes
  35. 35. Trichomonas Life Cycle
  36. 36. Birth control Method of Birth Control How does it Work? Abstinence Refrain from intercourse to prevent sperm from joining egg Sterilization Females – tubal ligation-fallopian tubes are cut & tied so egg can’t be fertilized & reach uterus Males - vasectomy – cut & seal off vas deferens so semen never has sperm in it (Permanent) Withdrawal Removal of penis from vagina before ejaculation occurs Condoms Sheath covering penis to prevent sperm from vaginal contact
  37. 37. Birth Control Diaphragm/Cervical Fitted cup or cap that covers the cervix to Cap prevent sperm from reaching egg Birth Control Pill Patch (Ortho Evra) Depo-Provera Contain hormones estrogen & progestin to prevent ovulation Protects against pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ovarian & endometrial cancer (1 pill daily for 28 day cycle) Skin patch worn on lower abdomen, butt, or upper body. Releases progestin & estrogen into bloodstream to prevent ovulation (wear for 3 weeks, not on 4th – menstruation) Shot of progestin to prevent ovulation
  38. 38. Birth Control IUD Small plastic device placed in uterus containing copper or progesterone. Prevents sperm from entering uterus & prevents a fertilized egg from implanting (Can be worn for 1-10 years) Family Planning Charting of menstrual cycle & detection of physical symptoms to determine “safe” time to have sexual intercourse Morning-after Pill Not a regular method of birth control Take 2 doses of hormone pills 12 hours apart & started within 3 days after having unprotected sex. Prevents implantation

×