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Human trafficking the issue versus propaganda & its ultimate solution1


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Human trafficking the issue versus propaganda & its ultimate solution1

  1. 1. Human Trafficking: The Issue Versus Propaganda & Its Ultimate Solution Presented by Yolanda Martin Template by PresenterMedia.com
  2. 2. Objective The purpose of this presentation is to provide insight into human trafficking or modern-day slavery, which is more prevalent today than it’s been at any point in human history, to dispel myths and propaganda that minimize this dilemma, and to propose viable solutions to it and its causes. Insomuch as the chief cause of Human trafficking is poverty, the proposed solutions will hinge upon emergency and permanent relief (food, health care, transitional housing, education, and international industry or business creation and proliferation).
  3. 3. Definition Human trafficking is the recruitment, receipt or harboring, and transporting of people for the purpose of forced labor, including prostitution, domestic servitude, forced marriage for the purpose of sex and domestic servitude, and other forms of sexual exploitation (organ harvesting is another form of human trafficking).
  4. 4. Scope The trafficking of humans is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world, second only to drug trafficking. According to the International Labor Organization, it has a global annual market of about $44.3 billion. Foreign trafficking for prostitution in Canada alone is estimated to be worth $400 million. The United Nations estimates that 12 to 27 million people are trafficked worldwide.  Victims are usually economically disadvantaged minorities, although they may come from any social background, race, or class, and they are often displaced persons, like runaways or refugees (Trafficked children in West Africa have lost one or both parents to AIDS).  Agriculture, mining, and forced prostitution are the most prevalent forms of human trafficking (Antebellum slavery in America hinged primarily upon agriculture).  Females are especially vulnerable for sex trafficking (70% of victims are women and girls), while men are more at risk for being trafficked or forced into unskilled labor.
  5. 5. Causes The chief causes of human trafficking are: 1. Poverty 2. Social discrimination 3. Organized crime 4. Corruption in government 5. Insufficient penalties against traffickers The trafficking of humans is a lucrative industry because it requires little start-up money, and, unlike drugs, people can be sold repeatedly. According to the State Department’s Annual Trafficking in Person’s Report cited by Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, the global economic crisis has increased episodes of human trafficking.
  6. 6. Global Stats  An estimated 14,000+ people are trafficked into the United States each year.  In Moldova (or officially the Republic of Moldova), a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68%, a third of the workforce lives and works abroad, and an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 women (up to 10% of the female population) have been sold into prostitution.  An estimated 300,000 women and children are involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia.  An estimated 200,000 Nepali girls have been sold into sex slavery in India, many under 14 years of age.  Many Iraqi women, fleeing the Iraq war, turned to prostitution or are trafficked abroad to countries like Syria, which is popular for sex tourism, and where an estimated 50,000 girls and women (many of whom are widows) are forced into prostitution.  In Cambodia, where the average income is less than $300.00 a year, and where around 30,000 children, according to Cambodia’s Minister of Women’s Affairs, Mu Soc Hua, are disposable for exploit.  An estimated 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the European Union.
  7. 7. The Controllers  A majority of trafficking is done by networks of small groups in which each specialize in certain areas, like recruitment, advertising, retail, or transportation.  NATO and United Nations “peacekeeping” forces are even linked to human trafficking, including forced prostitution. Rapid increases in prostitution were reported in Cambodia after UN forces moved in, and in Bosnia and Kosovo after UN and NATO forces settled into these regions.  In places like Eastern Europe, Russia, Columbia, Hong Kong, and Japan, trafficking is controlled by large criminal organizations.  Trafficked victims in the Russian federation are typically kidnapped and sold by police to be used for hard labor, often chained and drugged like dogs to prevent them from escaping.
  8. 8. Recruitment/Tactics Victims are commonly lured and trafficked through promises of legitimate employment, like, commonly, in the catering and hotel industry, clubs, bars, modeling, au pair work (a foreign national domestic assistant working for and living as part of a host family). They are typically recruited by use of coercion, deception, abuse of power, fraud, feigned love, and abduction, and through newspaper ads, the internet, pseudo employment agencies and front businesses, diplomats, and employers generally. Victims are often compelled to consent to exploitation by threats (including those against family members), violence, and debt bondage.
  9. 9. Dynamics of Trafficked Children  Children are forced into early marriage as well as prostitution, or they are recruited as child soldiers, beggars, or for sports, such as football or child camel jockey, or religious cults.  Young virgin girls are enslaved and used sexually by “priests” in a ritualistic system of servitude called trokosi in Ghana or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, and are further exploited for free labor within this system of shrine slavery…  The Fundamental Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in the United States and Canada has been implicated in the trafficking of minor girls across state and international boundaries.  Thousands of children from South America, Africa, and Asia are sold into the global sex trade. They are often orphaned, kidnapped, or actually sold by their families.  Illicit international adoption is a vehicle of the trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the developing world and the West.
  10. 10. Propaganda  Some believe that the trafficking of humans today in time is a hoax, exaggerated, or sensationalized.  It is also believed to occur only in poor countries, when actually every country in the world is involved.  Another erroneous assumption is that victims necessarily want to be in this industry.  Trafficking is distinguished from “people smuggling,” where there may be no deception involved, and individuals voluntarily request smuggler’s services for fees.  Rhetorical debates have further invoked a line of demarcation between trafficking and prostitution.
  11. 11. The Pros & Cons of Voluntary Prostitution & People Smuggling According to the Yay and Naysayers “Pros” “Cons”  Some form of income is better than none,  Unethical and exploitative labor practices, from or the ends justify the means. inhumane or substandard working conditions to  Those who endorse legalizing prostitution emotional and physical abuse, often under duress argue that condoms and pimps for or the threat of deportation, as for trafficked “protection” somehow dignify the trade. refugees and/or immigrants.  Vulnerability for and for spreading sexually  Where people smuggling or forms of transmitted diseases and for undesirable voluntary trafficking are concerned, the pregnancies and forced abortions. electing of these individuals to market  Scarce pay, in some cases, nothing more than a themselves supersedes any question of meal. ethics.  Trafficked individuals may be provided a place to  Trafficked individuals (including mail order live, but are less likely to acquire appropriate brides) are provided with a place to live and assistance and make more intelligent decisions on may be in a better situation than they were a spouse or mate. previously.  Human trafficking perpetuates ignorance, as  Human Trafficking is a multi-billion dollar many trafficked children and adults do not attend industry. school to improve their odds of gaining merited employment, due to the restraints that are imposed by traffickers.  Traffickers do not typically pay taxes, nor do the millions of individuals who are trafficked.
  12. 12. Terminology Brothel – A place where prostitutes meet to have sex with clients. Bonded labor (debt bondage) – A practice in which employers give high-interest loans to workers who then labor at low wages to pay off debt (A member of the debtor’s family may also be required to work towards payment of the debt). Source country – A country that victims are trafficked from, i.e. the former Soviet territories, Nepal, Nigeria, and Guatemala. Transit country – A temporary stop, i.e. Mexico, on the trafficked victim’s journey to the country where they will be enslaved. Destination country – Where trafficked victims end up. Sex tourism – Travel undertaken primarily or exclusively by men from developed countries to usually third world countries where there are a lack of restrictions on prostitution, and for the purpose of engaging in sexual activity with often trafficked women and children.
  13. 13. Similar Forms of Human Exploitation  Quid pro quo harassment is similar to human trafficking in that the victim’s employment is predicated upon whether or not they engage in an inappropriate (sexual) relationship with the perpetrator.  Domestic violence may contribute to human trafficking where the victim is subject to financial control, including being prevented from gaining and/or retaining employment or from attending school to increase their employability, and the victim’s sole method of survival is reliance upon the perpetrator and/or public assistance.  The victim’s work performance, grades in school, and/or attendance or ability to sustain employment may be affected by the perpetrator’s harassment and abuse.  Employment Blacklisting or Blackballing is a form of or may contribute to human trafficking where an existing or former employer attempts to impede the employment of an individual in retaliation for protected conduct and/or any other conduct that should not necessarily warrant prejudice against the individual for other sought employment, or where the employer or former employer or any other individuals involved actually profit, monetarily and/or otherwise, from the individual’s professional bondage.
  14. 14. Law Enforcement as a Conduit  Law enforcement – The trafficking of humans in corrections systems is one of the most subtle and common forms of the trade. It is fair to say, particularly in light of the disproportionate sentencing and presence of especially African American minorities in prison who are often used to work for little if any pay, that it has all of the makings of a sophisticated form of antebellum chattel slavery continuing in America.  Though the 13th Amendment does provide for involuntary servitude as punishment for crime, there is no expressed legitimization of payment less than minimum wage for even a working prisoner, who, if paid minimum wage, should reasonably be expected to pay their share of living and other expenses, including health care premiums and income taxes, besides stern savings requirements via authorized banks, all of which would feed forcefully into the economy.
  15. 15. Social Service Agencies as a Conduit Some domestic violence and other shelters and even the Housing Authority and Department of Family & Children Services or employees of these agencies endorse the exploitation of women and children as well as men.  Abused women, including those with children, are often denied services or face extreme challenges when seeking services at domestic violence and other shelters, whether or not there is an issue of space or slot availability, forcing many to simply return to their abusers and/or worse.  The Housing Authority has gone from housing women and/or custodial parents/guardians and children without enforcement of vocational expectations to ousting women and children into the streets and denying housing to others where mothers or custodial parents/guardians are making sincere efforts to educate themselves and work, and may have lost their jobs due to reasons beyond their control and could not meet 30-hour-per-week minimum work requirements, often despite fervent endeavors to land employment, noting that full-time employment (30+ hours) avails the privilege of housing in traditional apartment or housing communities.  The Department of Family & Children Services, or some offices or individual employees of DFACS have denied, to qualified candidates, available services that are designed to improve client and prospect employability/self-sufficiency.
  16. 16. Legislation • The 13th Amendment prohibits slavery and/or involuntary servitude. • The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 provides greater maximum sentences for traffickers, and provides resources for protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking… • Human trafficking is a federal crime under Title 18 of the United States Code, section 1584 making it a crime to force a person to work against their will, whether by use or threat of force or a “climate of fear” wherein individuals believe they may be harmed by leaving or refusing to work.
  18. 18. An International Office of DFACS and Authority of Housing The International Office of the Department of Family & Children Services and Authority of Housing, which would be funded by the United Nations via its proportionate collection of fees and/or taxes from all of its member nations, other synonymous agencies, and private donors from every point of the globe, would provide basic living necessities to individuals, families and children in crisis in developing and other nations in need of such services, to include the following: 1. Emergency food 2. Clean water (for cooking, drinking, bathing, and clothes washing) 3. Health benefits (including birth control, dental services, etc.) 4. Emergency, transitional, and/or permanent housing 5. Clothing & toiletries 6. Employment services (primarily online and other outsourced opportunities, to precede the proliferation of industry/local businesses that could provide traditional employment, for which transportation accommodations would be made).
  19. 19. Solutions/Resources  Proportionate UN fee or tax collection from all member nations for the purpose of global relief  Church and business resource pooling  Development of an International Department of Family & Children Services  The globalization/proliferation of Job Corps Programs  The globalization/proliferation of Housing in Developing Nations  Proliferation of international residential education programs for children  The World Bank  The globalization/proliferation of American and other businesses in developing nations  Colleges & Universities
  20. 20. The College/University Student-Residence Solution  The college/university student-residence solution would entail the disbursement of a set number of full scholarships that would cover tuition as well as room and board to trafficked victims who are high school graduates or who have acquired General Equivalency Diplomas, and meet matriculation requirements to the sponsoring colleges or universities.  There are well over 4,350 colleges in the United States alone, and over 17,000 colleges and universities in the world, meaning that, if American colleges/universities sponsored/housed 10 trafficked victims each year, 43,500 would be rescued, and, if every college/university in the world sponsored 10 trafficked victims annually, 170,000 would be rescued.  Supplemental collegiate dormitories for low income and overflow students who may not be accommodated with traditional campus housing due to space or slot limitations would help to shield many from distractions and hardships that are cause that some especially female students are lured or forced or voluntarily resort to self-exploitative practices, like stripping, etc. for the purpose of meeting school-related expenses. Each of these students, or those who are classified as low income could be required to volunteer for no more than 20 hours per week with designated companies or agencies, for the purpose of off-setting some of their expenses and receiving a modest stipend and/or transportation assistance.  Supplemental dormitories would consist of full-service computer & printing labs, childcare (another issue that stands in major need of address amongst low income students), and shuttles that would transport students to and from campus throughout each school day.
  21. 21. The Globalization/Proliferation of Job Corps Programs Residential job training programs like Job Corps could serve as a major vehicle of resolve of the human trafficking dilemma, seeing particularly that many individuals are lured by traffickers through promises of education and employment. Job Corps is a free job training program that provides three meals a day, childcare, clothing allotments, transportation, health services, pay, and job placement services to underprivileged youth between the ages of 16 to 24 years old.  The program should be weaned of minors (16-17 year olds), however, which comprise about 40% of its overall student population. These students should be compelled to attend traditional public schools through graduation, or at least to 18 years of age, whichever comes first (Job Corps pays more than $30,000 annually for services to students, while the public school system pays roughly $6,000 annually for student services). Weaning the program of minors would clear about 40,000 slots across its existent 123 centers in the United States that could be filled by trafficked victims. Job Corps should also service adults who are older than 24 years of age who could benefit from their services.
  22. 22. Proliferation of Residential Programs for Children & Families of School-age Children The issue of homeless children/homeless families with school-age children is within the local and global jurisdiction of the Departments of Education and Family & Children Services, and warrants the financial support of the United Nations, which has the power to collect fees from each of its developed member nations for this and other purposes, including global peacekeeping military initiatives that would alleviate the financial burdens of any lone or few nations endeavoring to be world police. EVERY homeless child and capable parent(s) or guardian(s) of every homeless child within the United States and in every nation of the world should be immediately accommodated with emergency housing, food, and other vital resources, and then all other homeless persons, and for the ultimate purpose of providing means for these individuals to achieve self-sufficiency through education and/or employment.  Under-enrolled schools would be utilized for the purpose of educating homeless children, many of whom have never attended or have difficulty attending school due to the nature of their circumstances. Residential facilities would be established for families with school-age children attending these particular schools within their respective school zones/regions—a single facility would house students from multiple schools within the region of an under-enrolled school that is utilized for the prescribed purpose. Parents/guardians participating in these programs would be compelled to participate in career service initiatives in which they would conduct job searches and/or pursue educational opportunities, and, once employed, will be required to pay rent. Any such residential facilities that become under-used should be utilized to accommodate homeless families with school-age children from other school districts, or even other states or countries.
  23. 23. The Globalization/Proliferation of Housing in Developing Nations The proliferation of housing (emergency, transitional, and permanent), as well as schools, hospitals, correctional facilities, et cetera, et cetera would be achieved through a number of agencies, from traditional realtors seeking to expand their businesses in the global market to agencies like the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Habitat for Humanity, Job Corps (Home Builders Institute), the Housing Authority, etc. Other agencies like the Peace Corps as well as military peacebuilding and peacekeeping initiatives would also participate in global housing development, from actual building to guarding and protecting until just and fortified law enforcement agencies are set into place within these particular communities that would do so.  The noted initiatives would create and compliment other employment opportunities for locals or citizens of the subject communities, availing the income for rental and/or purchase of these homes.  Public housing and housing vouchers would be availed to those qualifying for these particular programs, which would model and enrich those in the U.S.
  24. 24. The Globalization/Proliferation of American and other Businesses in Developing Nations Our developing nations should be viewed as opportunities to expand/grow American and other businesses and wealth, while providing employment and other human resources to poor and displaced persons around the globe. The proliferation of American and other businesses and franchising opportunities in developing nations will also provide a solid foundation and materials with which to build native grown businesses within these historically impoverished/famished nations and pioneer the ultimate industrialization of our entire world, and on *alternative/clean energy sources that would not further contribute to the mounting climate crisis. * What is termed alternative energy today (solar, etc.) should be the primary energy source and traditional energy sources (fossil fuels, etc.) should be the alternative (backup) for the sake of environmental healing; and the fossil fuel and oil industries would be of the ideals to market solar and other forms of clean energy while tapping into the greater wealth of the vast previously untapped markets of our developing nations.
  25. 25. Point of Reference Map The Point of Reference (POR) map would exhibit geographical and sociological details about every point of the globe for the purpose of facilitating resolution of global poverty, human trafficking, and war. A census would be taken for each region, of both serviced clients and those yet to be serviced. The POR map, which would be viewable via internet and television, i.e. C-span, would be color-coded to indicate areas of need versus areas that warrant little to no intervention. Clicking on a particular area would magnify the region (country, state, city, etc.) and their servicing agencies and contact/donation instructions. The ultimate goal would be to fill the map with a uniform color that would indicate fulfilled needs for the entire world. The POR map would be updated regularly, daily or weekly at best, by synonymous agencies; each of these agencies would be connected through and report on serviced clients through Pathways Compass and/or other management information systems for human service agencies around the globe.
  26. 26. Conclusion Human trafficking is a silent epidemic essentially because of laws forbidding it, the voicelessness of its victims due to fear, poverty, and gender discrimination, and because of cover tactics of traffickers and corruption within law enforcement and social service agencies that are the ultimate solutions. Human trafficking destroys the moral fiber of the country and world at large, and, though it is a multi-billion dollar industry, it is a major attributor to the world’s financial crisis, as traffickers and their millions of victims do not pay taxes, and victims, who outnumber traffickers, do not typically support our consumer markets, as they would if they were availed educational and legitimate employment opportunities.
  27. 27. Not for Sale! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDHmhB jl70o
  28. 28. Resources  Children of the Night, featured on the Dr. Phil Show, rescues and provides care for trafficked children  Human trafficking search.net  The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration Children and Family’s Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking is intended to identify and provide resources to trafficked victims to live safely in the United States. It provides general trafficking information and resources, like training and other tools, educational posters and brochures, fact sheets for healthcare and social service providers and law enforcement officers, and assessment cards for healthcare providers and law enforcement officers. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking  The U.S. Department of Justice provides information on how to report trafficking crimes, the prosecution of traffickers, protection for victims, as well as information about the Trafficking in Persons and Worker Exploitation Task Force, Prevention Through Outreach and Research, and U.S. government-related trafficking web links. http://www.justice.gov/