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Architectural Design Basics اسس التصميم المعمارى

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Architectural Design Basics
اسس التصميم المعمارى

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Architectural Design Basics اسس التصميم المعمارى

  1. 1. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 1 Architectural Design Basics Dr. Yasser Mahgoub KNOWLEDGE ABILITIES SKILLS Information Think Do Memorize and Understand Analysis and Composition Communication Names of things Elements of Architecture  Floor  Wall  Ceiling  Door  Window  Others (Stairs, ramps, elevators) Environmental Factors Human Factors  Scale and dimensions  Physical needs  Biological  Psychological  Perceptual Building Systems  Structural  HVAC  Electrical  Sanitary  Mechanical History of Architecture  Buildings  Architects Theory of Architecture  Movements  Trends  Styles  Philosophies Disciplines within Architecture  Urban Planning  Urban Design  Architecture  Interior Design  Landscape Other Disciplines  Engineering  Humanities Social and Cultural Factors The Profession  Education  Accreditation  Professional License  Professional Practice Analysis of Buildings  Elements  Functions  Context  Image Functional Relationships  Space Planning  Circulation  Relationships Creativity  Ideas  Concepts  Process Composition of Forms  Grid  Order  Balance  Symmetry  Rhythm Visualization  2D from/to 3D  Reality from/to Drawings Looking vs. Seeing Estimation  Distance  Area Interpretation  Intentions  Meaning Media of Communication  Drafting  Writing  Freehand Sketching  Models  Pictures  Computers Drawings  Plans  Section  Elevation  Perspective Graphics  Shapes  Forms  Scale  Measurements Visual Illusion Information  into Drawings  from Drawings
  2. 2. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 2 Portfolio Requirement Each student must maintain a record of his or her work in the graphics/studio sequence. This must be in the form of a 8 1/2" by 11" portfolio. The portfolio must include examples of at least one major project from each semester of the design sequence starting with the graphics studios in the first year. It is recommended that all major projects be included in the portfolio as well as selected examples of work from other courses such as building technology, construction documents, and architectural photography. The portfolio is a prerequisite for advancement in the studio course sequence and may be requested by the studio critic (instructor) on the first day of class.
  3. 3. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 3 Assignment 1: Elements and Principles of Design Architectural Design Basics course has several facets. Besides design exercises and projects conducted in the studio setting, the students also undertake design and graphic studies. Design studies explore the place of ideas and concepts in formal invention and judgment. Graphic studies explore the media for communicating and visioning the ideas. This is done in the "conventional" and digital way. The cliche "a picture is worth a thousand words" is a truism that derives from the image embodying an ability to communicate ideas through the photographer's thought, feeling and sight. The following exercises are intended to explore your way of seeing the world and will demonstrate that the decisions you make composing form and space as a photographic image is not far from composing these elements in architecture. Although a picture is worth a thousand words, in this exercise you are only required to communicate only two words. With your digital camera and your decision-making abilities, photograph 21 different combinations of the following elements and principles of design. You have to use each subject at least once. ELEMENTS PRINCIPLES Background Balance Colour Contrast Foreground Direction Form Dominance Grid Economy Light Emphasis Line Fragmentation Mass Harmony Material Hierarchy Path Movement Plane Order Point Pattern Shadow Proportion Shape Repetition Solid Rhythm Space Scale Structure Symmetry System Time Texture Unity Type Value Void Variety Requirements: Produce; 1) a power point presentation of all resulting photographs and 2) print one A3-size paper containing all pictures. Include the subject title, date and your full name. Submission: To be presented according to scheduled presentations.
  4. 4. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 4 Assignment 2: Architectural Typological Analysis Using Elements and Principles of Design Assignment • Develop a typological analysis of several buildings of your choice to illustrate the common features of their design style using your version of elements and principles of design. • Select at least 10 buildings from Kuwait to illustrate and prove your “theory”. • Analyze the buildings and illustrate their common design features. • You can expand the list by adding other elements and principles as needed. Requirements  Produce a PowerPoint Presentation of your study illustrating your analytical study and results  Write on A4 size paper a summary of your theory no more than 500 words and 5 pictures.  Include the title of the exercise, date and your full name in the presentation and the summary. Submissions  Written summary 40%  PowerPoint Presentation 60%  To be presented according to scheduled presentations.
  5. 5. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 5 Exercise: Free Hand Sketching Objectives: Knowledge: To know the importance of freehand sketching. Ability: To draw free hand sketches of shapes, objects, buildings and people. Skills: Train students to use pencil and pens to draw sketches. Assignment: Using 4 "A4" size white paper, draw freehand sketches of: 1. 2D Shapes: lines, squares, circles, triangles, … 2. 3D Forms: cubes, cylinders, pyramids, … 3. Draw an exterior perspective of one of Khaldiyah campus buildings using pencil or marker pens.
  6. 6. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 6 Exercise: Points, Lines and Planes Objectives: Knowledge: The formal and informal organization of points, lines and planes. Ability: To organize shapes in a meaningful way. Skills: Train students to use points, lines and planes to produce patterns and shapes. Assignment: Using A4-size white paper develop an abstract pattern, a portrait of a building, a person, or an object using the following elements: 1. Points or dots of different or equal size using black or colored pens. 2. Lines of same and different thickness or width, cut from black or colored papers. 3. Planes of same of different sizes and shapes, cut from black or colored papers. 4. Points, Lines and Planes of same of different sizes and shapes, cut from black or colored papers. Materials: - Colored paper - Cutting knifes - Glue
  7. 7. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 7 Exercise: Bas-Relief and Carved Cubes Objectives: Knowledge: Bas- relief technique. Ability: The goal of this exercise is to improve the students imagination abilities. Skills: Imagine a three-dimensional form with the help of two-dimensional sketches. Assignment: Soft materials can be selected for the creation of Bas- relief work. A two-dimensional sketch or composition can be drawn on the flat surface. The student starts carving out the surface and tries to explore different types of volumes. Triangular shape can be carved out as a concave pyramid or a square can be converted to a square based empty cuboids. You are required to develop 2 assignments : 1. using a 03 cm x 30 cm, 2.5 cm thick board and 2. a 51 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm cube. Materials:  Soft material like foam or clay. o 30 cm x 30 cm, 2.5 cm thick board. o 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm cube  Carving tools  Cutting knifes
  8. 8. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 8 Exercise: The GRID Objectives: Knowledge: To learn about the "GRID" as an important tool in organizing architectural spaces. Ability: To be able to select the appropriate grid for a project. Skills: To accurately draft different types of grids. Assignment: 1. On a white 50x70 cm sheet, draw the following grid patterns with pencil and then with ink. 2. Trace the same assignment with ink on a calc paper.
  9. 9. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 9 Exercise: Abstraction Introduction Abstraction is a technique adopted by artists from historical times to bring out the essential aesthetics of the subject. The basic visual element of the line itself is the most primitive abstract artistic expression. Daily newspapers, magazines, books have several illustrations in the form of advertisements. Experienced professionals of visual art design all these advertisements. The subjects in these illustrations are also full of variety, they contain human beings, animals, trees, flowers, leaves, mountains, rivers, sand dunes and numerous such subjects. The subjects are either artificially composed or photographed as a composed object. Objectives: Knowledge: Abstraction as an artistic technique. Ability: To be able to perform abstraction from original forms. Skills: To develop abstraction of a from or subjects. Assignment: Students are asked to select a number of such compositions in the form of printed photographs, pictures, advertisements and illustrations from the available books and magazines. Initially their selection is based on the logic "I like it" and "I don't like it". These pictures are supposed to be the pictures that are "the best" from student's point of view. Subsequently students are asked to make sketches, based on these compositions and to create an abstracted version of the original picture in exactly 5 steps. Students are asked to adopt following 5 techniques for abstraction: 1. To eliminate details. 2. To convert three-dimensional picture into two-dimensional line work. 3. To draw the same picture by using dots. 4. To draw the same picture by using technique of smudging and undefined hazy shapes. 5. To eliminate the colors or adopt new color scheme. Materials: - Select five pictures from (preferably architectural subjects) suitable for the different types of abstraction. - 50 x 70 cm white cardboard. - Draw the following border and perform the abreaction for each picture. Due dates: Monday, March 22, 2004 Border, selection of pictures and abstraction schemes, start. Wednesday, March 24, 2004 Completion and submission of assignment
  10. 10. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 10 A B S T R A C T I O N 70 cm 50 cm Eliminate details Convert 3-D to 2-Dl Re-draw using dots Adopt a new color scheme Re-draw smudging Abstract Original Kuwait University College of Eng. & Petroleum Department of Architecture Design Basics in Arch. Ex. 5: Abstraction Name: Date:
  11. 11. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 11 Exercise: Stairs and Staircases Design Objectives: Knowledge: To know and understand the design requirements of staircases. Ability: To design different types of stairs and staircases. Skills: To draft and make models of staircases. Assignment: 1. Design open steps that connects to the entrance of an elevated ground level in plan, section, and elevation. The ground floor is elevated 1.20 m above the ground level. 2. Design a typical staircase to serve 5 typical floors 3-m high. Draw Ground Floor Plan, Typical Floor Plan, and a Section. 3. Design a spiral staircase that connects a ground level of a villa to the upper floor only. The ground floor height is 3 m (floor to floor). Draw Ground Floor Plan, Upper Floor Plan, and a Section. 4. Make models of your staircases. 5. All drawings and models should be scale 1:50 on 50 x 70 cm size paper as indicated. Readings: Ernst Neufert, Architect's Data, p. 191-194
  12. 12. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 12 Typical staircase Spiral staircase Open Steps 70 cm 50 cm Kuwait University College of Eng. & Petroleum Department of Architecture Name: Date: Design Basics in Arch. Ex. 6: Staircase
  13. 13. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 13 Exercise: Nine Square Matrix Introduction The nine-square problem has a rich history. It supports communication objectives in the areas of model building, layout, and concept diagramming, and draws on general design principles previously introduced and explored. The project's theoretical focus is the definition of architectural space. Its key objectives include being able to define a hypothesis or strategy for investigating complexity in spatial definition; being able to consciously manipulate the number, attributes, and organization of architectural elements to create spatial compositions of relative complexity; and being able to communicate in words and diagrams the hypothesis investigated, concepts employed, and discoveries made in the investigation. The project provides students a formal format for exploring basic issues of architectural design related to simplicity and complexity, proportion and scale, and the defining of sets of relationships between parts and the whole. Requirements In this exercise the student is to design and construct a total of nine architectonic compositions of spaces, each illustrating combinations of floors, walls, and roofs defined in a matrix provided by the faculty. The horizontal edge of the matrix consists of three "continua" of simple to complex solutions. The vertical edge establishes the combinations of the basic architectural elements of floor, walls, and roof to be investigated. The use of the matrix and continua ensures that the models- the externalization and representation of ideas--become sources of understanding and discovery. Design decisions are seen not as right or wrong but appropriate or inappropriate given the context and goals. The project is given an explicit research or investigation orientation. It requires the student to consciously identify a set of factors to be investigated, and to explicitly communicate them to others. This process builds both vocabulary and the ability to translate ideas into words and diagrams. It also aids in building an understanding of the difference between a concept and a specific manifestation of that concept. The project's meaningfulness grows in direct proportion to the degree to which students invest themselves in some discovery. The solution to each continuum is to exhibit three clearly different and evenly spaced levels of complexity, with a smooth gradation across the continuum. Each composition within a continuum must contain a minimum of three visually accessible, inhabitable spaces, as well as scale human figures. Solutions to the exercise are presented in models constructed of white or colorless opaque, translucent, or transparent materials. The models must be accompanied by a two-dimensional presentation that communicates in words and diagrams the complexity hypothesis; the specific concepts employed in its exploration; and observations on the successes, failures, and discoveries of the investigation. This component of the presentation is an essential part of the research orientation of the project. Its role is to make explicit the hypothesis or positions that the investigation is exploring, identify the specific concepts being manipulated and reflect on the exploration's discoveries. The process of making project-thinking explicit facilitates conscious decision making and meaningful learning.
  14. 14. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 14 THE INTENT OF THE PROJECT This project provides students with a formal format for exploring basic issues of architectural design related to simplicity and complexity, proportion and scale, and making sets of relationships between parts and the whole. The project is designed for a guaranteed level of success to encourage beginning students. THE DURATION OF THE PROJECT The project lasts for two week in a sixteen-week sequence. The "Nine-Square Matrix project is presented near the beginning of the second eight weeks. It sits as an architectonic project in the middle of an abstract-to-architectural continuum that begins with basic design principles and builds to encompass a broad range of architectural issues. THE PROJECT The student is to design and construct a three-dimensional composition of spaces for each combination of floors, walls, and roofs at each level of complexity identified in the investigation matrix-a total of nine compositions. Each simple-to-complex continuum (1/2/3, 4/5/6, and 7/8/9) is to exhibit three clearly different and evenly spaced levels of complexity; they should present a smooth gradation from simple to complex. Each simple-to-complex continuum and/or the matrix as a whole is to test a defined hypothesis concerning the perception of spatial complexity. The models may be constructed only of white or colorless opaque, translucent, or transparent materials. The sites/bases may be nine individual, three horizontal, or one inclusive unit. The compositions may not extend horizontally past the boundaries of their individual sites and/or the base. Each composition must contain a minimum of three visually accessible, inhabitable spaces, each of which employs its assigned combination of floors, walls, and/or roofs. A minimum of one scale figure must be placed within one of the inhabitable spaces of each composition. An inhabitable space is any space with no dimension less than the height of the scale figure. The models must be accompanied by a two-dimensional presentation that communicates in words and diagrams the complexity hypothesis; the specific concepts employed in its exploration; and observations on the successes, failures, and discoveries of the investigation. N i n e S q u a r e s M a t r i x 70 cm 50 cm Floors Floors and Walls and Roofs Floors and Walls Kuwait University College of Eng. & Petroleum Department of Architecture Design Basics in Arch. Ex. 5: Abstraction Name: Date: Simple Complex 15x 15 cm
  15. 15. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 15 Exercise: Room Design Objectives: Knowledge: To know the design requirements of different residential room types. Ability: To be able to design different types of rooms according to their function. Skills: To correctly draft and make models of rooms. Assignment: 1. Design six types of rooms used in a residential unit using a generic room design. 2. The rooms should include: a. bathroom b. kitchen c. bedroom d. living room e. dining room f. office 3. Draw scale 1:50 a plan and 2 sections, showing doors, windows, wall thickness and interior elevations, for each of your rooms on a 50 cm x 70 cm white board (Canson) sheet with pencil and then ink. 4. Make a model of one of your designs. Readings: Ernst Neufert, Architect's Data, p. 245 - 306
  16. 16. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 16 Project: Visitors' Center in an Island Objective: Knowledge: To know how to solve a small architectural project. Ability: To analyze and learn from architectural precedence and to express and discuss architectural design ideas and concepts. Skill: To draw a complete small architectural project and present architectural drawings using pencil and ink. Assignment: Students are required to design a Visitors' Center for Umm Al-Maradem Island. It should contain an exhibition, three-dimensional model of the island, interactive touch-screen exhibit, a tower with telescopes for viewing the island, picnic area, gift-shop, and toilets for men and women. Program: 1. Exhibitions area 100 m2 2. Toilets for men 15 m2 3. Toilets for women 15 m2 4. Gift-shop 20 m2 5. Watchtower 10 m high 6. picnic area around the center 200 m2 Requirements: 1. One cardboard 100 x 70 cm each student is required to draw the following: 1. Layout scale 1:200 2. Ground Floor Plan scale 1:100 3. Entrance elevation scale 1:100 4. Side elevation scale 1:100 5. Section scale 1:100 6. Interior or Exterior perspective or isometric 2. Model scale 1:100 Submission date Monday, May 24, 2004 at 2:00 PM Jury Wednesday, May 26, 2004 from 9:00 AM to 2:00 PM
  17. 17. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 17 Visitors' Centers Examples San Francisco Bay Visitor Center, Sausalito, California S.F. Bay Model Visitor Center Information Overview of the Model and Visitor Center The model , located on Richardson Bay in Sausalito, California, is a unique scientific tool for exploring water movement patterns in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the bay part of the model in 1956 to test a series of barrier and water quality proposals. This tidal hydraulic model has since been expanded to include "The Delta" and is used to test the effects of oil spills, salt-water intrusion and pollutant dispersion. The San Francisco Bay Model Visitor Center offers the public a variety of opportunities to learn about the estuary, the natural environment and the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An orientation video features computer- generated images of the bottom of the bay. Audio tours are available in English, French, German, Japanese, Spanish and Russian. Each month the Visitor Center has exhibits, and programs for adults and school-age children.
  18. 18. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 18 Jewel Cave's Visitor Center Jewel Cave's Visitor Center was first opened in June of 1972. The Visitor Center is home to the Headquarters and offices for the Monument, as well as the main visitor services. Located in the Visitor Center is a small museum area with displays and information about the cave, a large-scale map of passageways of Jewel Cave, a small bookstore managed by the Black Hills Parks and Forests Association, interactive computers and more. The Visitor Center is the main contact station for the Monument, and all Monument information is available at the Center. It is the starting point for all of the Monument's hiking trails, as well as the starting point for the Scenic and Spelunking Tours. For more information about these, see TOURS. For information about the hiking trails and other activities on the surface, see SURFACE MAINLAND HEADQUARTERS AND ROBERT J. LAGOMARSINO VISITOR CENTER The Robert J. Lagomarsino Visitor Center on the mainland features a museum, living tidepool exhibit, three- dimensional models of all the park islands, interactive touch-screen exhibit, a tower with telescopes for viewing the islands, picnic area, a bookstore, and an outdoor native plant garden. Visitors will enjoy the 25-minute park movie, "A Treasure in the Sea", throughout the day in the auditorium. Every Saturday and Sunday park rangers present free interpretive programs on the natural and cultural resources of the park. Throughout the week, other programs and school visits may be scheduled by calling the visitor center. All facilities are fully accessible. Every Saturday and Sunday we offer several scheduled programs. Programs include Tidepool Talk at 11:00 a.m. and Recreating at Channel Islands National Park at 2:00 p.m. At 3:00 p.m., rangers offer programs that look in depth at a variety of topics about the park. Programs are free to the public. NASA Visitor Center NASA Visitor Center offers exhibits, tours, interactive presentations, and programs to show visitors from around the globe what the Goddard Space Flight Center is all about.
  19. 19. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 19 Picnic tables are available to the public, which offers a wonderful view of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Campus. Smoke free facility Handicap accessible.
  20. 20. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 20 Exercise: Design and Materials Objective: Architectural composition depends on the designer’s selection of appropriate materials in order to express certain design ideas. Linear form, organic, sculptural, traditional, hi-tech, … are some of these expressions that can be provided by the use of different materials. The physical characteristics of the material provide certain qualities and potentials for making the desired architectural compositions and expressions. Some of these characteristics are as follows:  Kind: Wood, metal, paper, textiles, etc.  Form: Linear (1D), Planar (2D), Volumetric (3D), etc.  Surface: Color, texture, transparency, reflectivity, etc. Types of Architecture:  Walls Architecture: Design depends on vertical planes supporting roofs and defining spaces and activities.  Mass Architecture: Design depends on addition and subtractions to a basic mass in order to express design ideas.  Layered Architecture: Design depends on floors (layers) supporting activities and functions.  Elements Architecture: Design depends on collection of elements to form spaces and sheltering. Exercise The student in this assignment is required to make four different compositions for imaginative monuments or buildings using four different materials. The design element in this exercise is to provide an interior space while developing the exterior volume. The student may use certain materials with different effects of Color, texture, transparency, or reflectivity. All four compositions will be placed on one base that is 50X70 cm wooden board. Examples of possible materials that the student can use - but not limited to - are as follows:  Wooden cubes  Wooden sticks  Play-dough  Cardboard  Foam  Plastic  Glass  Other --------
  21. 21. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 21 Exercise: Archimedean Objectives: Knowledge: To know about regular solids and semi-regular solids Ability: To visualize 3D solids from drawings. Skill: To draft and make models of solids and semi-regular solids. Exercise: Use white thick paper to make 2 pieces of each or 12 pieces of only one of the following shapes. Draft using your drafting tools with the greatest accuracy and neatness. Use a square unit of 5 cm as your basic unit. Add 1-cm flaps where needed. Make a creative model using your 12 pieces.
  22. 22. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 22 Exercise: Survey of an Existing Space Objectives: Knowledge: Conventional plans & elevations as three dimensional surfaces. Ability: To develop drawings and models of existing spaces. Skills: To survey, measure and draft plans and elevations of existing spaces. Exercise Team exercise: Measure design studio room in detail. Record data on blackboard. Individual Exercise: Draw plans & elevations from measured data per diagram below. Draw plans & elevations on board in ink from field measurements to scale at 1:50. Cut out & fold. (Above drawing is diagrammatic only) True ceiling plan Window elevation End Elevation End Elevation Plan
  23. 23. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 23 Exercise: The Color Wheel Objectives: Knowledge: To learn about the basics of colors and their use in architectural graphics. Ability: To be able to select the appropriate color scheme for a project. Skills: To accurately color a color wheel. Assignment: On a white sheet, draw the attached color wheel exercise.
  24. 24. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 24 Exercise: Neighborhood Poster Introduction Studnets are required to design and compose a poster that illustrates the important environmental and architectural features of their neighborhoods. Objectives Knowledge: To learn about the context of their everyday life experience. To develop ways of looking at architectural features of the environment. Ability: To be able to select and photograph the appropriate buildings and environments that represent their neighborhood. Skills: To make composition of graphics and draw accurately from pictures, drawings and maps. Assignment On a transparent sheet 100 x 70 cm using B&W ink only, develop a composition of graphics, maps, photographs, drawings, and any other suitable illustration to illustrate the important architectural features of your neighborhoods. 1. Take several photographs ( 2-3 rolls of films or a large number of electronic shots) of the important architectural features of your neighborhoods. Mark the location of your photo on the neighborhood map. Discuss with instructor to select appropriate images. 2. develop a composition that contains at least the following: - Name of neighborhood - Neighborhood map - At least 3 images of the important architecture features of the neighborhood (public buildings, shopping centers, parks, landmarks, distinguished villas, ... )
  25. 25. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 25 Project: Roundabout Improvement Objective: Knowledge: To know how to solve a small architectural problem using precedence. To find information related to an architectural project or architect. Ability: To analyze and learn from architectural precedence. To express and discuss architectural design ideas and concepts. Skill: To draw a complete small architectural project. To present architectural drawings using pencil and ink. Assignment: Students are required to design a landmark for one of Kuwait’s roundabouts.
  26. 26. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 26 Exercise: The Analysis of an Existing Space (1) Objective: Train students to document and analyze existing spaces. Assignment: The next series of problems will involve the documentation and analysis of one of the six existing spaces on campus. In order to prepare for this exercise you should visit all of the spaces listed below. In your sketch book you should record your observations about the space. Do not merely draw a "picture" of the space but try to describe it in as objective a way as you can. Some questions might be:  What is the underlying geometric order of the space?  What are the proportions of the space?  How is light brought into the space?  How is the space defined?  What is the relationship between sub-spaces?  How does the space relate to the context of both the building and the campus? 1. The entrance of Khaledyah Llibrary 2. The entrance of Khaledyah Administration Building 3. The entrance of the engineering building 14 KH 4. The courtyard between the library and administrative building 5. The male students' cafeteria N.B. No Photos are allowed for this exercise. Use only "sketches".
  27. 27. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 27 Exercise: The Analysis of an Existing Space (2) Objectives: To promote the conception of space as a positive entity and understand its definition. To develop an ability to observe and record architectural phenomena. To introduce analytical and abstract thinking. To introduce basic drawing and model conventions. To introduce the role of precedent. Assignment: Objectives: Project: Day 1 - During drawing class Each of you will be assigned to an existing space on campus. You are to record the space in its context in plan and section through direct field observation, with particular attention payed to the way in which the space is defined and articulated. Day 2 - On white horizontal 11x17" sheets of paper draw the plan and section, using freehand soft pencil (B) lines. Day 3 - Make an abstracted axonometric drawing of the space. Days 4, 5, 6, and 7 - Make a model of the space. The model is to be made of white board. Make any required revisions to your to your drawings.
  28. 28. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 28 Exercise: The Abstraction and Analysis of an Existing Space (3) Objectives: To encourage abstract thinking. To introduce diagrams as an aid to architectural thinking To encourage speculation about architectural phenomena Project: Now that you have observed, recorded, and represented an existing space you are to engage in a process of critical speculation about the space. Develop a series of analytical diagrams that elucidate the issues listed below. In addition to the diagrams you are to draw a cut away worm's eye axonometric. All material is to drawn using freehand pencil lines on 11"x17" white paper. Issues: Geometry - regulating lines Geometry - form square, circle Symmetry v. Asymmetry Space primary/secondary Multiple and overlapping spatial readings Center v. Edge Circulation - sequence and movement Implied tectonics Light Hierarchy Program Proportion Material Scale N.B. This list is not exhaustive and you may add other issues In general the process of abstraction entails the leaving out of information that is not pertinent to a particular category and the representation of elements that are.
  29. 29. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 29 Exercise: A Studio House Objective: This project, the final project of the semester, represents the application of all previously discussed information regarding form and space, into one project. Assignment: This project, the final project of the semester, represents the application of all previously discussed information regarding form and space, into one project. The project, a small dwelling, represents the first application of these issues into an architectural solution. Along with concerns for spatial definition, formal strategy, and a value for craftsmanship the student is now concerned with the relationships of these formal and spatial ideas to the practical aspects of architecture, including program, site, and structure.
  30. 30. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 30
  31. 31. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 31 From the Internet Cornell University ARCH 101 Design I Fall. 6 credits. Limited to department students. An introduction to design as a conceptual discipline directed at the analysis, interpretation, synthesis, and transformation of the physical environment. Exercises are aimed at developing an understanding of the issues, elements, and processes of environmental design. ARCH 110 Introduction To Architecture Design Studio Summer. 3 credits. S-U option. Open to non architectural majors in college, high school students in 11th and 12th grades, and any individuals with a minimum of a high school diploma interested in exploring the field of architecture. Not offered every year. A course designed to introduce students to ideas, principles, and methods of solving architectural problems in a studio setting. Through a graduated sequence of exercises culminating in a major term project, students explore the architectural concepts of space, form, function, and technology. Instruction is via highly personalized critiques of individual student work by assigned department faculty as well as by periodic reviews of the group by invited faculty and guest critics. The course grade is based on the overall performance in the studio with special emphasis on the quality of a major studio project. U of Michigan Arch 201: Basic Drawing Prerequisite: None Fall and Winter (3 credit hrs.) A freehand studio drawing course limited to pencil and pen, this introductory class concentrates upon seeing, describing and analyzing form through linear graphic means. Though intended primarily for students considering a design related career, it is open to students from any discipline wishing to improve their visual literacy. The first half of the course, unbiased toward a particular art, focuses upon understanding the role of line in creating form. Principles of orthographic and perspectival projection are introduced in the second half of the semester. Arch 202: Graphic Communications Prerequisite: None Fall and Winter (3 credit hrs.) This studio drawing course emphasizes mechanical drawing means and is intended primarily for students contemplating careers in architecture and related professional fields. The student is introduced to a wide range of basic techniques, conventions and means used in the design fields, as well as selection of drawing instruments and surfaces. Considerable attention is given to the development of a disciplined approach to the construction of measured drawings. Arch 212 (HA 212): Understanding Architecture Prerequisite: None Winter (3 credit hrs.) This course examines visual, cultural, historical and philosophical aspects of the man-made environment using examples from the field of architecture and the allied arts. The intent of the course is to provide a general view and a rudimentary understanding of the profession and the discipline of architecture. Upon completion of the course, the student is expected to demonstrate an understanding of the ideation context and the formal attributes of the built environments of various eras. The format includes two weekly lectures, weekly discussion sections and several basic design problems. Arch 218: Visual Studies Prerequisite: None Fall and Winter (3 credit hrs.) This studio course provides an introduction to the elements, principles and techniques that underlie and inform the analysis, creation and evaluation of visual organizations and are crucial to the process and product of form-making. The course consists of: 1. An overview of selected topics pertaining to the perception of visual organizations. 2. The study of visual organizations entailing point, linear, two- and three-dimensional elements or combinations thereof.
  32. 32. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 32 3. The study of color and its influence on visual organizations. A variety of studio exercises are used to apply the knowledge and skills acquired throughout the term. Arch 316: Design Fundamentals I Prerequisite: Year 3 standing Fall (3 credit hrs.) This course introduces the beginning student in architecture to a working understanding of the factors and issues that underlie the translation of human needs and purposes into significant architectural form. Course objectives are: 1. To establish a base of design concepts and knowledge with an introduction to references and ideas to foster independent inquiry. 2. To develop skills in environmental analysis, concept formation and certain aspects of design. 3. To familiarize students with images of architecture and design drawn from various times and cultures. Specific topics include the basic elements, attributes and organizational principles of architectural form and their relationship to design intention. Related topics include framework for design, design methods, site analysis and design, human factors and environmental factors. Arch 326: Design Fundamentals II Prerequisite: Arch 316 Winter (3 credit hrs.) Through the examination of exemplary buildings, this course considers techniques and strategies of architectural design. Lectures present analyses of individual buildings relating their form and conceptual ambitions to relevant theoretical premises and historical contexts. The works examined range from the early part of the last century through the present and trace the diverse trajectory of developments in twentieth century architecture. Lectures and readings examine structuring principals of design including programmatic organization, material construction, formal syntax and type. The course aims to reveal and make available to students design strategies found in historically significant and varied examples of architecture while instilling a critical understanding of all these approaches. Princeton University
  33. 33. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 33 ENDS 105 - 505: Design Foundations The objective of this course is to promote the basic understanding and the development of prime design ideas. In practical terms, the first part of the course will deal with a series of independent studies addressing formal values, functional requirements, and materialization constraints. Despite its apparent fragmentation, these studies will allow us to place our particular attention on the development of a visual vocabulary, the management of programmatic requirements, and the conceptualization of material concerns, but always making reference to a global architectural framework. The second part of the course will deal with a single subject of design in which the students are expected to produce an architectural solution that addresses the synthesis of all three fundamental concerns. Special attention will be placed on the solution of inter-relations among them; here the generation of the prime design "idea" will be highlighted and will play a decisive role as point of departure and integrator of the different design decisions. Ohio State University 202 INTRODUCTION TO BASIC DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE U 5 An introduction to basic design problem solving; concepts of point, line, plane, and space organization; principles of unity/variety, order, balance, proportion, scale, etc.; orthographic projection and axonometrics; pattern diagraming; and basic design consequences of human activity. Virginia polytechnic institute and state university college of architecture and urban studies ARCH 1015, 1016 - FOUNDATION DESIGN LABORATORY Laboratory, lectures, and seminars in which students and faculty explore the nature of problems with which architecture is concerned and experimentally develop design methods for the structuring of concepts and forms that respond to identified need. ARCH 1015 fulfills the University Core Curriculum Area VI, Creativity and Aesthetic Experience, requirement. (2H,12L,6C). University of Arizona School of Architecture CAPLA ARC 101: Foundation Studio I 2000 Fall DESCRIPTION Visual, haptic and cognitive representation by means of: freehand drawing and material manipulation. Prerequisites: None. Teaching format: Five hours per week in studio groups and one fifty-minute lecture on theory and principles, one fifty- minute period may be used for videos, field trips, or reviews. To design is to plan and organize, to order, relate and to control In short it embraces all means opposing disorder and accidnet ---Josef Albers , Search vs. Research Drawing is indispensable as a tool which connects design decisions with the physical world of contruction, and for this reason it has always been considered the basis of architectural education. Drawing is, in fact, the discipline that connects sight and knowledge. The act of seeing, since it allows us to enter into a knowledge of the world of things in which we live, is the first and foremost means by which we come to possess these things. To take this one step further, the connection between drawing and knowledge can be thought of as the natural extension of the relationship between sight and the outside world. It can be said, then, that drawing is knowledge. Therefore, there exists no better demonstration of our knowledge of the external world than the ability to draw it. Through drawing we strive to possess the world that exists outside us, and to make it part of ourselves. Rafael Moneo, Foreword to Hypnos Fundamental to good design are precise, measurable skills that may be learned. To achieve great design, one must have the ability to apply those skills in a way that is less easily measured or taught--"exactitude winged by intuition" (Klee).
  34. 34. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 34 In the two-semester Foundation Studio sequence, the courses will teach the skills and, perhaps more importantly, the ways of thinking to apply them. The focus of this first semester is on seeing. It will introduce a vocabulary of design by means of freehand drawing techniques and compositional design exercises. 21 November 2000 19:15:40 ARC: 201: Design Studio I 2000 Fall DESCRIPTION Composition: making of space by elements in motion and experiments probing the nature of materials. Introduction of spatial elements (line, plane, volume) and tectonic elements (material, arrangement, light). Prerequisites: Professional phase admission. Teaching format: Studio, 6 credits I suggest that every person opens an interior trapdoor, that he negotiate a trip into the thickness of things, that he might make an invasion on their characteristics, a revolution, a turning over process comparable to that accomplished by the plough or spade when suddenly millions of particles of dead plants, bits of roots and straw, worms and tiny crawling creatures, all hitherto buried in the earth, are exposed to the light of day for the first time. Francis Ponge, A New Introduction to the Pebble from Education of an Architect Good architecture starts always with efficient construction. Without construction there is no architecture. Construction embodies material and its use according to its properties, that is to say, stone imposes a different method of construction from iron or concrete. I believe we can create contemporary architecture with all materials-with any material as long as we use it correctly according to its properties. In areas where we can find nothing but stone, we shall build with that stone, that is the local stone. We shall create contemporary architecture as we would have done with any other material (iron, concrete, wood) which we would have found in another area, because the leading ideas are the spirit of construction and the flexibility of our outlook and not the constructional whim foreign to the site. The finite location; the climate, the topography and the materials available each area determine the constructional method, the functional disposition, and finally the form. Architecture cannot exist without landscape, climate, soil, and manners and customs. Aris Konstantinidis, Architecture, 1964 from Studies in Tectonic Culture 25 August 2000 19:44:46 ARCH 201 1999 Projects  Reading the Landscape The goal of this project is to begin the process of seeing and reading the landscape as place; to form a spatial (architectonic) vocabulary that both analyzes and synthesizes the world we exist within; to examine the landscape of the everyday for its spatial, temporal, and material traits.  Principles & Elements The goal of this project is to introduce students to the use of principles and elements of design through compositional assignments. A series of exercises from one line composition to a three dimensional four line composition expose students to the analysis of the different components in a composition.  Nine Square Analysis Architecture, like other forms of design, is not born of arbitrary decisions. For this exercise, students were asked to choose a project from a given list and perform an analysis of the building, coming to understand of its ARCHITECTONICS and its SPATIAL EXPERIENCE.  Sequence This project requires students to extend the analysis recently completed in previous project to look at the entire body of work done by the same Architect. The focus of the investigation will be the elements of spatial sequences, which help to visually organize and define a path. The intent of this exercise is that the study of isolated elements of a sequence and the ways in which they can be manipulated to create an emotional/aesthetic impact will enable students to create imageable spatial sequences in their own design work.
  35. 35. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 35 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Architecture and Urban Planning, 200 ARCHITECTURAL FUNDAMENTALS I. 5 CR. U. INTRODUCTION TO HOLISTIC ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN EMPHASIS ON ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING CONVENTIONS AND THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG FORM, THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, PEOPLE, AND USE. PREREQ: SOPH ST; COMBINED GPA OF 2.50 IN ARCH 100(P) & 101(P), OR CONS DEAN 201 ARCHITECTURAL FUNDAMENTALS II. 5 CR. U. DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SKILLS EMPHASIS ON PERSPECTIVE, SKETCHING, DIAGRAMMING, ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS, AND PREPARATION FOR DESIGN SYNTHESIS. PREREQ: SOPH ST & ARCH 200(P); OR CONS DEAN University of Pennsylvania Studios 201: Visualization I: Drawing and Design (A) [1 cu]. An introductory drawing and design studio exploring two-dimensional image-making as the foundation for visual communication and representation. In projects employing observed and imagined subject matter, conventional media and drawing techniques are used to investigate making and seeing. 202: Visualization II: Drawing and Communication (B) [1 cu]. Prerequisites: ARCH 201. A continuing drawing and design studio exploring two-dimensional visual communication through advanced composition and media technique. With an emphasis on individual intent and analysis, imagination and craft are incorporated into projects investigating the relationship between culture and content, media and image, narrative and object, and historical and contemporary issues of representation and design. 301: Design Fundamentals I: Perception (A) [2 cu]. Prerequisites: ARCH 201, ARCH 202. An introduction to principles of visual perception and the language of visual form. Students explore the relationship between the two-dimensional images and their corresponding three-dimensional interpretations in plan, section, elevation, axonometric, one-point perspective, and two-point perspective. Moving back and forth between these dimensions leads to the development of a working design method.
  36. 36. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 36 302: Design Fundamentals II: Structure and Metaphor (B) [2 cu] Prerequisites: ARCH 201, ARCH 202, ARCH 301. An introduction to two-and three-dimensional design. Students explore the relationship between form and meaning, investigating the relationship between visual structure and metaphor, acquiring creative problem-solving skills in abstract and concrete processes, developing a sense of material and craft, and learning to communicate verbally and graphically. Course Staff: Julia Wood, David 'Max' Phillips The AA's one-year, full-time Foundation course provides the opportunity to question and to experiment with both theory and practice in the study of spatial issues. Emphasis is also placed on the use of different means to transform careful observation and research into fabrication. We will develop working processes that result not just in sketches, plans and models, but also in the reality of built structures as urban interventions. Although the Foundation course operates independently of the course leading to the AA Diploma, it draws on the resources of General Studies, Technical Studies and Communications Studies. Using teaching methods which embrace architecture, art and other spheres of design, the course is particularly flexible and able to incorporate a range of ideas. This provides students from a variety of backgrounds with the opportunity to engage with the rich educational, cultural and social life of both the AA and London at large, whilst also allowing for time to focus on personal development and objectives. The Foundation course is open to all self-motivated students with an interest in architecture. Some of the applicants who join have already begun their studies in architecture, art or engineering; some have in mind a change of career; others come with raw ambition, direct from school. The course is based on four main projects, interspersed with shorter exercises, workshops and seminars that cover specific issues and techniques (photography, video and film, measured drawing, movement, colour, print-making, model-making, plaster-casting, 3-D construction and Photoshop). The course capacity is around twenty students and, from the outset, the teaching focus is on the individual. Regular one-to-one tutorials with the teaching staff allow students to discuss their responses to project work, their more general interests and other concerns. The reality of creative teamwork is challenged through group discussions, collaborations and peer assessment. Foundation aims to encourage the use of both home and shared studio working environments, thus allowing the development of formal, organized techniques and analysis, whilst also recognizing the role of intuition and spontaneity. Work is monitored throughout the year in workshop and project juries, whilst a formal review in the Spring Term evaluates how well a student is engaging with the course. The final assessment of the work takes place at the end of the year, with a portfolio review and exhibition. At this point a decision is taken regarding the best future course of study. Many students will pass to the AA First Year, whilst others will move to other recognized architecture courses or to a career in art and design.
  37. 37. Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Architectural Design Basics- KU (2) 2003-2004 37 Suggestions: Field trip Visual illusions Group assignment: A Nomadic Shelter: The 21st century tent