Information and Communication Technology
3. Research is genuine exploration of the unknown that leads to new
knowledge that often warrants publication. But whether or not the
results of a research project are publishable, the project should be
communicated in the form of a research report written.
Preparation of a comprehensive written research report is an
essential part of a valid research experience, and the researcher
should be aware of this requirement at the outset of the project.
Interim reports may also be required.
Sufficient time should be allowed for satisfactory completion of
reports, taking into account that initial drafts should be critiqued by
the faculty advisor and corrected by the research at each stage.
4. Title page
Title of report
Researcher’s name/ code
Table of contents Shows the sections of the report
Acknowledgements an expression of gratitude for
assistance in creating an original work
Gives a summary of the whole report
Outlines -purpose, research
findings, main conclusions and
5. Section Purpose
Outlines context, background and
Defines terms and sets limits of the research
The reader/audience can easily identify what
Methodology Explains how research was done and outlines
how the data was collected
may be combined
Presents findings of the research
Facts only - no interpretation
Uses graphic form (eg. tables & graphs)
6. Section Purpose
Presents an interpretation and evaluation of
Analyses results - draws together different
aspects of the findings, findings of other
studies and refers to literature
Conclusion Brief statement of what was found
Recommendations Suggest suitable changes/solutions
Appendix Attachments of additional information (eg.
surveys, questionnaires, glossary etc)
References All references used
7. Logical analysis of the subject matter
Preparation of the final outline.
Preparation of the rough draft
Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft
Preparation of the final bibliography
Writing the final draft
8. Helps in defining the problem statement
Two main elements
- literary review : analysis of publications
Quality control for supervisors
- narrowing down the review
9. Clarity of thought
Use of concepts
Careful use of terminology
Clarification of the problem
Method of presentation
Flow of language
Chapterisation of report
Inclusion of essential data
Use of foot notes
Size of report
Authenticity of report
Comprehensive report writing for academic community
10. Integral part of research study
Presentation of research result
Requires set of skills
Utmost care; assistance and guidance of experts if required
11. Hypothesis tests are procedures for making rational decisions about
the reality of effects.
A rational decision is characterized by the use of a procedure which
insures the likelihood or probability that success is incorporated into
the decision-making process. The procedure must be stated in such a
fashion that another individual, using the same information, would
make the same decision.
When a change in one thing is associated with a change in another,
we have an effect. The changes may be either quantitative or
qualitative, with the hypothesis testing procedure selected based
upon the type of change observed.
Hypothesis testing or significance testing is a method for testing a
claim or hypothesis about a parameter in a population, using data
measured in a sample.
13. The first step is to formulate the alternative and null hypotheses.
The second step is to test the null hypothesis , by carrying out a
statistical test of significance to determine whether it can be
rejected, and consequently, whether there is a difference between
the groups under investigation.
In the third step, the sample statistics appropriate for the sample,
variables and hypothesis are calculated.
In the fourth step, a significance test is conducted, to see if the null
hypothesis can be rejected.
In the final step, the decision is made to reject or accept the null
14. Simple, specific and conceptually clear: There is no place for
ambiguity as it makes the verification of hypothesis almost
impossible. Hypothesis is uni-dimensional i.e. it should test only one
relationship at a time. To develop a good hypothesis one must be
familiar with the subject area.
Capable of verification: methods and techniques must be available
for data collection and analysis. Hypothesis techniques can be
formulated during research and analysis.
Related to the existing body of knowledge: hypothesis should have
emerged from an existing body of knowledge and it adds to it. This is
an important function of research
Operationalisable: expressed in terms of that can be measured. If it
cannot be measured , it cannot be tested and hence no conclusions
can be drawn
15. Helps direction: a hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation,
and it guides the direction on the study.
Specify the source of data: a hypothesis specifies the sources of data,
which shall be studied, and in what context they shall be studied.
Determine the data: it defines which factors are relevant and which are
not. The use of hypothesis thus prevents a blind search and indiscriminate
gathering of data which may later found to be irrelevant to the problem
Suggest the type of research
Helps suitable technique
Development of theory: It links theory and investigation. A hypothesis
can be deducted from a theory. When it is tested though studies and found
true, it forms a part of theory.
Possible to test theories: A social scientist develops a theory to explain a
phenomenon, he doesn’t test the theory directly , but he tests the
hypothesis derived from it. If the test confirms the hypothesis , the theory
Constructed theory: occasionally , the reverse takes place, i.e., theory
may be constructed from hypothesis.
16. It is with the help of hypothesis that it becomes easy to decide as to what
type of data is to be collected and what type of data is simple be ignored.
Hypothesis makes it cleat as to what is to be accepted, proved or
disproved and that what is the main focus of study.
It helps the investigator in knowing the direction in which he is to move.
Without hypothesis it will be just duping in the dark and not moving the
A clear idea about hypothesis, means saving of time, money and energy
which otherwise will be wasted, thereby botheration of trial and error
will be saved.
It helps in concentrating only on relevant factors and dripping irrelevant
ones. Many irrelevant factors which otherwise get into the study can
easily be ignored.
A properly formulated hypothesis is always essential for drawing proper
and reasonable conclusion.
17. ICT is not only an extension of man’s ability to compute but
also help him in storing and retaining data for further research
Computers play an important role of logical decision on
various aspects of research.
ICT helps in big role in every sphere of research like research
in education, research in business, research in trade etc.
It can facilitate the implementation of different types of
The internet, in its capacity as a source of information can be
useful in uncovering secondary data and also collecting
primary data needed in various researches.
18. Speed and accuracy: a computer is a high speed device, capable of
taking logical decisions, performing arithmetic and non arithmetic
operations for research.
Logical decisions for a research: it is capable of comparing data of
research project and the results are compared to take appropriate
Perfect memory related to research: the computers are capable of
storing large amount of data and recalling information stored in its
Versatility: a modern computer is a versatile machine. It can be used
to solve the problems related to various research projects.
Diligence: computers are superior to human brains in respect of
memory. It has high diligence and never feels tired or fatigue even if
it has to work for very long hours.
Automation: it means that once the research data and instructions
are fed to the computer, human interventions are not required.
19. A number of easy use packages which run on micro computers to
perform standard statistical analysis are available. Typical
capabilities of these packages are frequency distributions, cross-
tabulations, test for population means, regression analysis, non-
parametric analysis etc
Researcher has to look into the actual usage of various statistical
tools in different areas of research
A large number of advanced statistical tools are available to
arrive at valid conclusions from the data collected by the
SPSS, SASS, SX, MYSTAT, S-PLUS, KYPLOT etc.
20. SPSS offers a big range of significance tests, methods of
correlation and regression and data reduction techniques.
Each module is like separate analysis tool.
The researcher has to load the data in the computer and
apply the suitable tool for a given situation.
21. Source of research provider
Helps in project management
Sources of secondary data
Sources of govt data
22. Gerard Guthrie, “Basic research methods” Sage Publications,
Hans Raj, “Theory and practice in social research”, Surjeet
Shashi K. Gupta & Praneet Rangi, “Research methodology”,
Kalyani Publishers, 2013.
Chava Frankfort- Nachmias- David Nachmias, “Research
methods in Social sciences”, Martin’s Press, 1996.
C. Murthy, “ Research Methodology”, Vrinda Publications,