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Water Conservation_PeopleAndPollution

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Publicada em: Negócios, Tecnologia
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Water Conservation_PeopleAndPollution

  1. 1. Water Conservation People and Pollution 2009 Alex Speir, Tracy Huang, Philip Arthur Johnson, Rasheda Vereen, Jim Leader
  2. 2. Foam-Flushing Toilets
  3. 3. Problem <ul><li>Wasteful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use at least 1.5 gallons of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazardous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use dangerous chemicals to clean the toilet and dispose of waste </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Solution <ul><li>Foam-flushing toilets </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages <ul><li>Increased efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 3 oz. of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves $2,100/year per 100 people on both water and sewage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a biodegradable foam to remove waste and clean toilet </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Drawbacks <ul><li>High upfront costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each toilet costs $2,000 to install </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, we would save $35,000/year if installed throughout Amherst College </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Solar-Powered Heating
  8. 8. Problem <ul><li>Greenhouse gases emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Utility costs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Solution <ul><li>Install solar heating system on dormitories </li></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water storage tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this expensive? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Advantages <ul><li>Recover costs </li></ul><ul><li>Even more energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Uses available materials and skills </li></ul><ul><li>To produce 4.5 kilowatts of heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50%-80% used by a family of four </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You need three 4x8 ft. panels </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: $10,000—10 years to pay off </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces: 5,000 kilowatt hours of energy a year </li></ul><ul><li>Larry Hunter, Professor of Physics at Amherst College, “Here Comes the Sun Shower” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/opinion/10hunter.html </li></ul>
  11. 11. Drawbacks <ul><li>Unpredictable weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing co-generation plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Upfront costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can every college afford this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax incentives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Better Shower Regulators and Showering Techniques
  13. 13. Problem <ul><li>Current showers only have controls that control temperature in relation to intensity of shower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotter showers use more water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ten minute shower uses up to 15 gallons of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>https://www.amherst.edu/campuslife/greenamherst/conservation_water </li></ul>
  14. 14. Solutions <ul><li>Shorter Showers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Navy Shower” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New shower controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermostatic – “antiscald” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable intensity showers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://blogs.moneycentral.msn.com/smartspending/archive/2008/08/20/navy-shower-your-way-to-energy-water-savings.aspx </li></ul>Thermostatic Shower Control with variable flow rate
  15. 15. Advantages <ul><li>Navy showers can use as little as 3 gallons of water per shower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% water savings per student (vs. 15 gallon, 10 minute shower) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable intensity shower controls allow for less water use when you don’t need it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent water temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No “shower shock” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Drawbacks <ul><li>Navy showers are not fun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not relaxing or enjoyable, either </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermostatic shower controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires moderate plumbing adjustments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible impact on energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College uses boiler/steam system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sinks
  18. 18. Problem <ul><li>Wasteful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes people leave water running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also people could use an excessive amount of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faucets in some dorms drip even when turned off (ex. Moore) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Solutions <ul><li>Motion sensor faucets </li></ul><ul><li>Fixing leaky faucets </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to turn off faucet and use less water </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advantages <ul><li>Motion sensor faucets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shuts off automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses “timed” wash so less water is used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer germs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixing leaky faucets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to advertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could result in a substantial decrease in water use </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Drawbacks <ul><li>Motion sensor faucets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People could use more than one session if it isn’t long enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be frustrating to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive, especially in old dorms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixing leaky faucets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t address entire issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Plant may not have time to do it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will be the size of the effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces waste itself </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Sprinklers
  23. 23. Problem <ul><li>Current sprinkler systems rely solely on a timer </li></ul><ul><li>Overwatering grass and plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes large amounts of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has negative impacts on vegetation, requiring more maintenance in the long-term </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Solution <ul><li>Install Smart Sprinkler Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of options in terms of brands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing timer system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Modules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ET is the amount of water lost through transpiration to the air and water loss to the soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors weather conditions in the area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waters plants only when the plants need water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Advantages <ul><li>Reduces amount of wasted water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average reductions of 35-60% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saves $$, by reducing water usage </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces cost of grounds maintenance due to overwatered plants </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term savings outweigh short-term costs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Drawbacks <ul><li>Amherst has numerous sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the purchase of many Smart modules </li></ul></ul>