3. What is Architectural style ?
To keep the integrity of the architecture from
programming structure ( low level) to the application
structure ( high level), a few key features and rules to
integrate them are used.
These features and rules are called “Architectural
4. Components affecting styles
Runtime function components
No ‘edit’ allowed on repository data; Only sequential updates ! …
Communication between components
Remote procedure call
Data sockets …
5. Benefits of styles
Design ( Appointment system Vs Reservation system )
Code ( Calendar function)
6. Common styles
Main program and subroutines
Pipe and filter
9. Call and Return style
It is the classical programming paradigm (Used for the past
The requester ( main prog) calls for a service from a
subroutine and waits until a requested service completes its
actions and return the control to main program with the
A program is decomposed hierarchically. There is typically a
single thread of control and each component in the hierarchy
gets this control (optionally along with some data) from its
parent and passes it along to its children.
The goal is to decompose a program into smaller pieces to
help achieve modifiability.
10. Remote procedure call
Main program and subroutine systems that are decomposed
into parts that live on different computers connected via a
The goal is to increase performance by distributing the
computations and taking advantage of multiple processors.
In remote procedure call systems, the actual assignment of
parts to processors is deferred until runtime, meaning that the
assignment is easily changed to accommodate performance
In fact, except that subroutine calls may take longer to
accomplish if it is invoking a function on a remote machine, a
remote procedure call is indistinguishable from standard
main program and subroutine systems.
12. Object oriented
Here, the objects are components that provide black-box
e.g an object (4 legged animal with its attributes) inherits
other component ( e.g cat/ dog with its attributes) thro
This bundle is an encapsulation that hides its internal
secrets from its environment.
The user of a service need not know, and should not
know, anything about how that service is implemented.
( information hiding)
This encapsulation promotes reuse and modifiability,
principally because it promotes separation of concerns.
14. Advantages and Disadvantages
Can break problems into interacting agents
Can distribute across multiple machines or networks
Change implementation without affecting clients
Objects must know their interaction partners; when partner
changes, clients must change
Side effects: if A uses B and C uses B, then C’s effects on B can be
unexpected ( unknown) to A
A B C
16. LAYERED STYLE
An ordered sequence of layers, each layer offers
services (interfaces) that can be used by programs
(components) residing with the layer(s) above it.
In this, the components are assigned to layers to
control inter component interaction. In the pure
version of this architecture, each level
communicates only with its immediate neighbours.
The goal is to achieve the qualities of modifiability
Layer bridging: functions is one layer may talk to
other than its immediate neighbor
17. Advantages and Disadvantages
They support designs based on increasing levels abstraction.
Allows implementers to partition a complex problem into a
sequence of incremental steps.
They support enhancement
They support reuse.
Not easily all systems can be structures in a layered fashion.
Performance may require closer coupling between logically
high-level functions and their lower-level implementations.
19. VM benefits
It can allow one to simulate (and test) platforms that
have not yet been built (such as new hardware), and
it can simulate "disaster'' modes (as is common in
flight simulators and safety-critical systems) that
would be too complex, costly, or dangerous to test
with the real system.
Common examples of virtual machines are
interpreters, rule-based systems, syntactic shells,
and command language processors
22. LAYERED STYLE
(Client - Server)
One or many servers provide services to instances of
subsystems, called clients
Each client calls on the server, which performs
some service and returns the result
The clients know the interface of the server The
server does not need to know the interface of the
The response in general is immediate
End users interact only with the client.
23. CS – e.g Library Management System
Client -end: User application (LMS)
Customized user interface
Front-end processing of data
Initiation of server remote procedure calls
Access to database server across the network
Server-end: Database access and manipulation (server)
Centralized data management
Data integrity and database consistency
Concurrent operations (multiple user access)
Centralized processing (for example archiving)
24. Advantages and disadvantages
Makes effective use of networked systems
May allow for cheaper hardware
Easy to add new servers or upgrade existing servers
Increased Availability (redundancy)
Data interchange can be hampered by different data layouts
Communication may be expensive
Data integrity functionality must be implemented for each server
Single point of failure ( affects all clients)
25. DATAFLOW STYLE
Dataflow styles focus on how data moves between processing elements. T
The data-flow style is characterized by viewing the system as a series of
transformations on successive pieces of input data.
Data enter the system and then flows through the components one at a
time until they are assigned to some final destination (output or a data
A data flow system is one in which:
the structure of the design is determined by the motion of data from component to
the availability of data controls the computation
the pattern of data flow is explicit
Pipe and Filter
27. Batch sequential style
Processing steps, or components, are independent
The assumption is that each step runs to completion
before the next step starts.
Each batch of data is transmitted as a whole between the
The typical application for this style is classical data
Library management etc ..
( Pipe and Filter)
Components (filters) are connected through connector,
A pipe is a connector that conveys streams of data from
the output port of one filter to the input port of another
A filter is a data transforming component that reads
streams of data through one or more input ports and
writes streams of data to one or more output ports.
Pipes provide an order-preserving, buffered
communication channel to transmit data generated by
The only way that filters interact with each other is
( Pipe and Filter) …
Computation in a pipe-filter system proceeds in a data-driven
The availability of data on the input ports of its filters allows
them to compute values that are written to their output ports.
Because pipes buffer data in the communication, filters can
act asynchronously, concurrently, and independently.
Pipes must connect output ports to input ports
Pipe-filter systems are often associated with implementations
in which filters are separate processes( programs written by
us), and operating systems infrastructure is used to provide
pipe communication between the processes.
The best known example is Unix, LEX/YACC based compiler, DIP etc
32. Advantages and Disadvantages
Makes it easy to understand overall function of the system as a composition of filter
Encourages reuse of filters: any two filters can be connected if they agree on data format
Facilitates maintenance: filters can be added or replaced
Facilitates deadlock and throughput analysis
Potential for parallelism: filters implemented as separate tasks, consuming and producing
Often leads to batch-type processing
Not good for interactive applications
Can’t coordinate stream inputs
Data transmission critical for system performance
Sharing global data expensive or limiting
Scheme is highly dependent on order of filters
Can be difficult to design incremental filters
Error handling is difficult
Data type must be greatest common denominator, e.g. ASCII
34. Shared Memory Style
Consumer’s knowledge on data availability
Store informs the consumer – blackboard
Consumer is responsible - repository
Used when there are multiple accessors and persistence
Decouple producer from consumer
Data store performance, security, privacy, compatibility with other
Artificial Intelligence (AI) - Rule based
Compiler architecture – Rule based
Facebook Chat – Black board
Google drive - Repository
36. Shared Memory Style
A repository architecture consists of a central data
structure (often a database) and a collection of
independent components which operate on the
central data structure.
Subsystems access and modify data from a single
data structure called the repository
Subsystems are loosely coupled (interact only
through the repository)
Control flow is dictated by the repository through
triggers or by the subsystems through locks and
38. Shared Memory Style
A Blackboard is a database into which a process can
insert, retrieve, or remove data.
Allows multiple processes to communicate by reading
and writing information and requests to a global data
Each participating process has expert knowledge in its
Solution to a problem depends not only on a subsystem
but also on other subsystems
Processes communicate strictly through the common
blackboard whose content is visible to all processes.
A control unit is responsible for selecting an appropriate
process to solve it.
39. Advantages and Disadvantages
Efficient way to share large amounts of data
Data integrity localized to repository module
Solution strategies should not be preplanned
Data/problem determines the solutions
Subsystems must agree (i.e., compromise) on a repository data
Schema evolution is difficult and expensive
Distribution can be a problem
Interaction between “independent” programs needs a complex
Data on the blackboard is a subject to frequent change
40. Shared Memory Style
A list of rules or rule base, which is a specific type of
An inference engine or semantic reasoner, which infers
information or takes action based on the interaction of
input and the rule base. The interpreter executes a
production system program by performing the following
Temporary working memory.
A user interface or other connection to the outside world
through which input and output signals are received and
42. Shared Memory Style
Inference engine parses user input and determines
whether it is a fact/rule or a query. If it is a fact/rule, it
adds this entry to the knowledge base. Otherwise, it
queries the knowledge base for applicable rules and
attempts to resolve the query.
Components: User interface, inference engine,
Connectors: Components are tightly interconnected, with
direct procedure calls and/or shared memory.
Data Elements: Facts and queries
Behavior of the application can be very easily modified
through addition or deletion of rules from the knowledge
43. INTERPRETER STYLE
Interpreter parses and executes input commands,
updating the state maintained by the interpreter
Components: Command interpreter,
program/interpreter state, user interface.
Connectors: Typically very closely bound with direct
procedure calls and shared state.
Highly dynamic behavior possible, where the set of
commands is dynamically modified. System
architecture may remain constant while new
capabilities are created based upon existing
44. INTERPRETER components
Interpretation engine: to do the work
Memory: that contains pseudo code to be
Representation of control state of interpretation
Representation of control state of the program
46. Advantages and Disadvantages
Highly dynamic behavior possible, where the set of commands
is dynamically modified.
System architecture may remain constant while new
capabilities are created based upon existing primitives.
takes longer to execute the interpreted code but many
optimizations might be possible
when multiple interpreters are invoked simultaneously
47. INTERPRETER STYLE
A data element (some representation of a program) is
dynamically transformed into a data processing
Components: “Execution dock”, which handles receipt of
code and state; code compiler/interpreter
Connectors: Network protocols and elements for
packaging code and data for transmission.
Data Elements: Representations of code as data; program
Variants: Code-on-demand, remote execution, and
Examples : processing large amounts of distributed
data , dynamic behavior / customization
50. IMPLICIT INVOCATION STYLE
( Event Based)
Independent components asynchronously emit and
receive events communicated over event buses
Events – data sent as a first-class entity over the event
Components communicate with the event buses, not
directly to each other.
Component communication with the event bus may
either be push or pull based.
Highly scalable, easy to evolve, effective for highly
Simplify system design, development, and testing
because they minimize relationships between system
53. Event processing styles
Simple event processing
Directly related to specific, measurable changes of condition
A notable event happens which initiates downstream action(s)
Used to drive the real-time flow of work, thereby reducing lag time and cost
Event stream processing
Both ordinary and notable events happen
Ordinary events (orders, RFID transmissions) are screened for notability and
streamed to information subscribers
Used to drive the real-time flow of information in and around the enterprise,
which enables in-time decision making
Complex event processing
Allows patterns of simple and ordinary events together to be considered to infer
that a complex event has occurred
Evaluates a confluence of events and then takes action
Used to detect and respond to business anomalies, threats, and opportunities
54. Example use
Programming environment - tools integration
Editor announces it has finished editing a module
Compiler registers for such announcements and
automatically re-compiles module
Editor shows syntax errors reported by compiler
Debugger announces it has reached a breakpoint
Editor registers for such announcements and
automatically scrolls to relevant source line
55. IMPLICIT INVOCATION STYLE
Subscribers connect to publishers directly (or through network)
Components communicate with the event bus, not directly to each other
Strong support for reuse: plug in new component by registering it for
Maintenance: add and replace components with minimum effect on
other components in the system
Sometimes become quite unpredictable
Hard to control.
56. Advantages and Disadvantages
Easy to evolve
Heterogeneous (as long as components can communicate with
the bus they can be implemented in any possible way)
No guarantee when the event will be processed
57. IMPLICIT INVOCATION STYLE
Subscribers register/deregister to receive specific
messages or specific content.
Publishers broadcast messages to subscribers.
Analogy: newspaper subscription
Subscriber chooses the newspaper
Publisher delivers only to subscribers. Publisher has to maintain a list
Sometimes proxies may be needed to manage
It is the job of publish-subscribe runtime infrastructure
to make sure that each published event is delivered to all
subscribers of that event.
59. Message Filtering
Subscribers typically receive only a subset of the total messages
published. The process of selecting messages for reception and
processing is called filtering.
Two forms :
Topic-based system : messages are published to "topics" or
named logical channels. Subscribers receive all messages
published to the topics to which they subscribe, and all
subscribers to a topic will receive the same messages. The
publisher is responsible for defining the classes of messages to
which subscribers can subscribe. ( cricinfo –latest score only /
Content-based system : messages are only delivered to a
subscriber if the attributes or content of those messages match
constraints defined by the subscriber. The subscriber is
responsible for classifying the messages. ( any search engine)
Some systems support a hybrid of the two : publishers post
messages to a topic while subscribers register content-based
subscriptions to one or more topics.
60. Example use of publish/subscribe
Social media “friending”
GUI (Role based apps)
Multi-player network-based games ( FIFA )
61. Advantages and Disadvantages
Subscribers are independent from each other
Very efficient one-way information dissemination
When a number of subscribers is very high, special protocols
62. PEER-TO-PEER STYLE
State and behavior are distributed among peers which
can act as either clients or servers. No asymmetry as in
Peers: independent components, having their own
state and control thread.
Connectors: Network protocols, often custom.
Data Elements: Network messages
Topology: Network (may have redundant connections
between peers); can vary arbitrarily and dynamically
Supports decentralized computing with flow of control
and resources distributed among peers.
63. Advantages and Disadvantages
Robustness (if a node is not available the functionality is taken
Security (peers might be malicious or egoistic)
Latency (when information retrieval time is crucial)
Notas do Editor
Main program displays greetings and instructions, then enters a loop in which it calls the three subroutines in turn.
GetBurnRate runs continuously on its own, prompting the user for a new burn rate.
In this design the “compute new values” determines how much time has passed. Could alternatively do that in the GetBurnRate filter. Would change semantics a bit.