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Open Team Science: a new team-based research methodology for socio-environmental cases in the open science era

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Slides presented at Japan Geoscience Union Annual Meeting 2018

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Open Team Science: a new team-based research methodology for socio-environmental cases in the open science era

  1. 1. Open team science A new team-based research methodology for socio- environmental cases in the open science era Yasuhisa Kondo1, Ge Wang2, Ui Ikeuchi3,1, Kei Kano4,1, Terukazu Kumazawa1, Ken’ichiro Nakashima5,1, Hideyuki Onishi6,1, Takeshi Osawa7,1, Tatsuki Sekino1 1 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 2 Japan Science and Technology Agency, 3 University of Tsukuba, 4 Shiga University, 5 Hiroshima University, 6 Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts, 7 Tokyo Metropolitan University Session M-GI23 Open Science as a New Paradigm MGI23-01 May 23, 2018 13:45-14:00 Room 103
  2. 2. Open Science as Paradigm Global Research Infrastructure 16. We affirm the principle that efforts should be directed to promote a widespread participation of researchers in the network of global research infrastructures, taking account of the opportunities offered by open science paradigms. –– G7 Science Ministers’ Communiqué (September 28, 2017)
  3. 3. In the Era of Open Science… Scientific research will be Open by Default. Open data and content can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose. ––– http://opendefinition.org
  4. 4. Convergence to Open Science 2017/5/23 JpGU 2017 2 Open Science Open Data Open access Citizen science, crowd funding Research data, Data publication, Data repository Collaboration, Open innovation Open peer-review Reproducibility, transparency, conservation trans-disciplinary research Participation Transparency Collaboration Sharing Meta Research (Research on Research) (Adapted from Kitamoto 2017) Open Science Paradigms ↓Top-down Open Science Knowledge Policies ↑Bottom-up Engagement Approaches
  5. 5. Moose = = Salad = Apple Plate = Knowledge Integration in Team Science The US National Research Council defined Team Science as scientific collaboration conducted by more than one individual in an interdependent fashion. (Cooke & Hilton eds. 2015) (Adapted from Rosenfield 1992; Falk-Krzesinski 2014)
  6. 6. Information asymmetry in transdisciplinary projects Overgrowth of waterweed in Lake Biwa, Shiga, Japan Actor Research experts & Prefectural Office Coastal residents & Municipalities Unengaged public Problem Ecological Social (Bad odor & rubbish) Less interested Cost: 600M yen/year The waterweed issue is differently understood in different socio-geographical contexts.
  7. 7. Four approaches to reduce information asymmetry Transcendence (or framework-shifting) Zurashi (Miyauchi ed. 2013) An adaptive governance approach to transform the source of existing conflict or obstacle among actors by exploring a common goal to tackle together. Participation and Empowerment Encouraged participation & empowerment of marginalized (or “small voice”) people Visualization Data visualization helps participants to share information and perceive asymmetry more intuitively. Dialogue Mutual conversation to understand other views, not like a discussion or argument for (dis-)agreement Solution Obstacle Approach Civic Tech for a holistic approach
  8. 8. Civic Tech A participatory co-production of solution for local issues by self-motivated civic engineers using information and communication technologies and open data Graphic recording (by Y. Aruga)
  9. 9. Two Pathways of Open Data to Social Innovation Open Government Data Open Research Data Open Governance Open Science Social Innovation (Solution) Civic Tech Transdisciplinary ResearchRIHN Open Team Sci Project
  10. 10. Range Capability of Civic Tech Process of Research Current Transdisciplinary Theory (Mauser et al. 2013) Open Science Civic Tech 1. Problem identification Co-design of research agenda --- ✔ 2. Approach selection --- (Experts decide) --- (Experts decide) ✔ 3. Problem solution Co-production of knowledge Civic participation ✔ 4. Publication Co-dissemination of results Open Access Open Data ✔
  11. 11. The Open Team Science Methodology for the case of Lake Biwa waterweed… Open Scientific Knowledge Public engagementOpen Science Trans- disciplinary Research (TD) Outcome Resource Feedback Knowledge Production Action Input Output Networking = KAN Common problem Team Science Solution! Develop methods to measure effects Open Research Data [The FAIR Data Principle] Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable Civic Tech [Participation & Empowerment] Develop methods to reduce information asymmetry
  12. 12. The Open Team Science Methodology for the case of Lake Biwa waterweed… Open Scientific Knowledge Public engagementOpen Science Trans- disciplinary Research (TD) Outcome Resource Feedback Knowledge Production Action Input Output Networking = KAN Waterweed overgrowth Local team + RIHN Realistic solutions Develop methods to measure effects Questionnaire Survey [The FAIR Data Principle] Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable Lake Biwa Ideathon [Participation & Empowerment] Develop methods to reduce information asymmetry
  13. 13. Hypothesis-Practice-Assessment Cycle (Watanabe et al. eds. 2014) Case Study Assess- ment Working Hypo- thesis Indicator Criteria Outcome • Has the target issue been solved? Process • Did the tools work effectively? • Was the collaborative research project successful? Perception • How have participants’ values and understanding of the issue transformed through the project? Adapted from Horizon 2020 Responsible Research and Innovation • Participatory Observation • Semi-structured Interview • Periodical Questionnaire
  14. 14. Summary Integration of Open Science and TD Theories towards a new research paradigm of Open Team Science Methodology for Information Asymmetry Reduction - Transcendence - Empowerment - Visualization - Dialogue Open Science Transdisciplinary (TD) Team Science Open Team Science
  15. 15. Supplementary slides
  16. 16. RIHN Projects as Team Science Interviews to seven completed projects have revealed: • Every project is a team science with substantial interdependency between natural and social sciences. • Every project suffers from a gap in understanding focal issues among different disciplines and stakeholders. • The research resource accumulated to the RIHN is human resources and case study know-hows rather than data.
  17. 17. Fundamental Research Question There is often a gap between researchers from different domains or between researchers and societal actors in understanding the social issue caused by environment degradation. • Why does such a gap occur? • How can we overcome such a gap to solve the issue?
  18. 18. Gap = Information Asymmetry (Originally: one party has relevant information, whereas others do not; Akerlof 1970) • “Different views to the same thing” • Information asymmetry between actors obstacle solution-oriented team science because it may lead to different understandings in focal issues and other actors. • Such asymmetry could be caused by actors’ difference in: – Knowledge and technology; – Thought and value; and – Socioeconomic status and power.
  19. 19. Information Asymmetry in interdisciplinary projects Interpretation of protohistoric settlement dynamics in the Okayama region, Japan Wetter climate condition (Large-scale climate change) More flash floods (changes in local topography) Shift of settlements (Changes in local land use) State formation (Changes in social organization) Settlement dynamics in a region (Matsugi & Kondo in prep.) Climate change (Nakatsuka 2015) Archaeologists think local hazards and social transformation drove the settlement dynamics. Climatologists think climate change drove the settlement dynamics. “Social evolution”
  20. 20. Buzzwords Results in Information Asymmetry an important-sounding usually technical word or phrase often of little meaning used chiefly to impress laymen Resilience DNA Data Entropy Model Framing Database TEK (Trad. Env. Know.) SEK (Sci. Env. Know.) Empathy Snuggle Local Know. Dialogue Fūdo Culture Tradition Region Environment Nature Knowledge Wisdom Information Capability Conversation Research origin Socio-political origin General language origin Development Biodiversity Dissemination Issue-oriented Social Implementation Cultural Landscape Wellbeing Human Culture Open Data Governance Bond Source: RIHN Buzzword Survey 2017
  21. 21. Social-issue-oriented Research Approach Characteristics Reference Mode II Science Multidisciplinary teams working together for short periods of time on specific problems in the real world Gibbons et al. 1994 Citizen Science Public participation in organized research efforts Leach et al. 2005 Dickinson & Bonney 2012 Action Research A comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action Lewin 1946 Stinger 2007 Transdisciplinary Research (TD) A team science with societal stakeholders, targeting a real world problem Hadorn et al. 2007 Lang et al. 2011 Mauser et al. 2013
  22. 22. History of Transdisciplinary Theories Action Research SciTS: Science of Team Science Mode II Science (Gibbons et al.) TD @OECD as a solution to societal issues TD @WHO as knowledge integration Social Tech. (Kessel & Rosendield 2008; Cummings et al. 2013; Wang 2017) 1946 1970s 1994 2006 2017
  23. 23. http://www.scienceofteamscience.org/assets/SciTS_Conf_2010/presentations/2010-04-22-trochim.pdf Science of Team Science (SciTS)
  24. 24. Transdisciplinary Research (TD) “Science with Society” • Co-design of research agenda • Co-production of knowledge • Co-dissemination of the results with societal stakeholders (actors) such as governmental agencies, funders, industries, NPOs and civil society (Mauser et al. 2013 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001) Transdisciplinary research is always a team science, targeting a real world problem, and should ideally be a participatory action research. (after Hadorn et al. eds. 2007; Lang et al. 2012 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-011-0149-x) 24
  25. 25. Reduce information asymmetry by means of data visualisation and dialogue Socio- Economic Status & Power Socio- Economic Status & Power Local Actors Actors who need solution Bridging Agents Actors who facilitate mutual understanding of local agents and external collaborators Solution | Wisdom Value & Thought Knowledge & Technology Value & Thought Spin-off projects Knowledge & Technology Co-production of knowledge through participatory action research External Collaborators Actors who wish to assist solution ‘TD Wheel’ in the Era of Open Science Adapted from Carew & Wickson 2010 Presence of Bridging Agents is given.
  26. 26. Project Organization 28 members (iii) ID to TD transition Theory Development Group Working Hypothesis & Assessment 1. Diversion: Philosophy, Anthropology, Social Psychology, Ethics, … 2. Open Science: International/Japanese trends, Best practices, … 3. Team Science: SciTS, TD theories, … 4. Visualization: Ontology, GIS, Graphic facilitation, … 5. Co-creation: Hatenathon, Participatory public comments, … 6. Assessment: Semi-structured interview, Periodical questionnaire, … Community-based heritage management in Oman w/ Sultan Qaboos Univ. Ecological Recycling Project (PL: N. Okuda) Settlement dynamics & climate change in Okayama w/ Climate Adaptation History Proj. “Culture” as a buzzword w/ JSPS KAKENHI PaleoAsia Proj. Methodology Co-creation w/ Traceability Proj. Water infrastructure replacement in Furano w/ Sanitation Proj. Waterweed reuse in Lake Biwa [Mitsui & Co. Env. Fund] (ii) Community Empowerment in TD projects (i) Research thought sharing in ID projects Case Study Group
  27. 27. Project Members Bold: Core Member (iii) ID to TD transition Theory Development Group Working Hypothesis & Assessment 1. Diversion: Onishi, Abe, Fukunaga 2. Open Science: Osawa, Hayashi Ka., Kitamoto, Ikeuchi, Murayama 3. Team Science: Ota, Wang 4. Visualization: Kondo, Kumazawa, Sekino 5. Co-creation: Kano, Sato, Shimoyama 6. Assessment: Kano, Nakashima Community-based heritage management in Oman w/ Sultan Qaboos Univ. Benkari, Hayashi Ke. Kondo Ecological Recycling Project Okuda (PL), Asano, Ishikawa, Matsushita, Wakita Settlement dynamics & climate change in Okayama w/ Climate Adaptation History Proj. Nakatsuka (PL) “Culture” as a buzzword w/ JSPS KAKENHI PaleoAsia Proj. Kondo Onishi Methodology Co-creation w/ Traceability Proj. Tayasu Water infrastructure replacement in Furano w/ Sanitation Proj. Funamizu (PL) Hayashi Ko. Ushijima Waterweed reuse in Lake Biwa [Mitsui & Co. Env. Fund] Kondo, Kumazawa, Kamatani, Fujisawa, Shimoyama (ii) Community Empowerment in TD projects (i) Research thought sharing in ID projects Case Study Group Advisors Nakanishi, Taniguchi
  28. 28. (i) Research Thought Sharing in ID projects Topic Settlement dynamics and climate change in Okayama during the Yayoi-Kofun periods “Culture” as a buzzword Project Climate Adaptation History Project (Prehistory & Ancient History Group) JSPS KAKENHI PaleoAsia Project Actors & Information Asymmetry The main driver for the settlement dynamics was… Culture is… Climatologists (PI) Archaeologists Archaeolo gists (PI) Anthropol ogists Math. biologists Climate change. Social change. Material. Behavior. Agent. Cause for the Asymmetry Difference in research thoughts To what extent did the environment determine culture? Is culture created by individual or group? Reduction Approach [Recipe] Data Visualization and Switched Explanation Tools [Cooking tools] GIS, Ontology, Interview Ontology, Questionnaire
  29. 29. (ii) Community Empowerment in TD projects ←オルタナティブ→ Topic Waterweed Reuse in the Lake Biwa Catchment, Shiga Replacement of the small water supply system in Furano, Hokkaido Project Mitsui & Co. Environment Fund and Ecological Recycling Project (Waterweed WG) SIP Community-based Water Infrastructure Management Project in liaison to the RIHN Sanitation Project Actors & Information Asymmetry Overgrowth of the waterweed is… The purpose of the project is… Experts & Shiga Pref. Municipali- ties & Coastal residents Unengaged public Experts Student volunteers Ecological Social Uninterested Technological implementation Uninformed (unmotivated) Cause for the Asymmetry Different understanding and perception of the issue Different motivation Reduction Approach Community building through diversion, participation & empowerment Tools Civic Tech GIS, Interview, Questionnaire (Civic Tech inapplicable) Observation, GIS, Interview
  30. 30. (iii) New Enterprise: Transition from ID to TD Topic Sustainable renovation of vernacular oasis settlements in Oman Project New project in collaboration with Sultan Qaboos University Actors & Information Asymmetry Conservation of built heritage Government wants to do conservation based on the UNESCO guideline = Top-down actions without public engagement Architects and archaeologists want to do research = “helicopter science” Local residents respect the tradition, but do not want the old-fashioned inconvenient life. Cause for the Asymmetry Different motivation Reduction Approach Community empowerment, with particular attention to “small voice” female residents & students Tools Interview, Graphic facilitation, GIS Students interview an aged female resident of vernacular building in Oman Reuse plan of a vernacular building complex as tourist guesthouse
  31. 31. How to Assess Perceptual Transformation Before After Example question: Do you agree that local traditional knowledge is important to create solutions to socio-environmental issues? Information Asymmetry Reduction Strongly Disagree Strongly AgreeNeutral Strongly Disagree Strongly AgreeNeutral Average for scientists Average for non-scientists Average for scientists Average for non-scientists
  32. 32. Outputs and Outcome Goals This three-year project will clarify: • Q1: Causes to information asymmetry between actors; • Q2-4: Effective combination of visualization tools and dialogue techniques; and • Q5: Methods to measure the effects of the tools applied. Outputs International journal papers, cookbook, and portal website • Targets: Post-doc & Assist. Prof. level researchers and relevant practitioners who will lead a project in near future. • Contents will be published as open source. Outcome • Volunteers will improve the cookbook and portal website. • The methodology will be implemented to upcoming RIHN projects and the evaluation criteria. • Q6: Development of the Open Team Science (OpenTS) theory as a result of the integration of Open Science and TD theories (5) Utilization
  33. 33. Output A Portal Website for Open Team Science http://www.teamsciencetoolkit.cancer.gov
  34. 34. Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom 34Adapted from Bellinger et al. 2004 http://www.systems-thinking.org/dikw/dikw.htm Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Understanding Connectedness Understand Relations “what, who, when, where” Understand Patterns “how” Understand Principles “why” Clearly distinguish knowledge and information.
  35. 35. The FAIR Data Principles as a realistic solution to open research data • Findable • Accessible • Interoperable • Reusable 35https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup/fairprinciples
  36. 36. Uneasiness of researchers is the most serious obstacle to open science Dialogue Group C, Open Science Unconference #2 (September 2016) This thought was validated by the Japan open research data survey in collaboration with the Nat. Inst. Sci. Tech. Policy (Ikeuchi et al. 2017)
  37. 37. Wicked Problem Approach 1 Diversion [or Transcendence?] • Zurashi in Japanese (Miyauchi ed. 2013; English translation to be determined) • An adaptive governance approach to transform the source of existing conflict or obstacle among actors by exploring a common goal to tackle together. Solution Obstacle Approach
  38. 38. Approach 2 Encouraged Participation & Empowerment of marginalised (or “small voice”) people Eight principles for empowerment (Amme & McCall eds. 2008) 1. A person chooses his or her own objectives. 2. The person takes initiative and the authority to make decisions. 3. The person considers his or her issues and the ways through which to resolve them. 4.Successes and failures are analyzed as opportunities to learn and build capacities. 5.Inner elements within the person and their supporters are discovered and fortified to change behaviors. 6.The person is prompted to participate in the process of resolving issues to boost their sense of responsibility. 7.Improvements are made to networks for supporting the process of resolving issues and their resources. 8.Motivation is boosted toward improving conditions for the person (such as the achievement of his or her objectives or their well-being). Focus group discussion with local NPO women in the Lake Biwa catchment, Japan Students interview an aged female resident of vernacular building in Oman
  39. 39. Approach 3 Fair Data Visualization • Data visualisation helps participants to share information and perceive asymmetry more intuitively. Graphic facilitationOntological mapping
  40. 40. Approach 4 Dialogue • Multi-dimensional, dynamic, and context- dependent process of creating meaning. (Philips 2011) • Mutual conversation to understand other views, not like a discussion or argument for (dis-)agreement. Hatenathon Questioning workshop serves for refining and sharing questions between participants, with removing “powerful” discourses.
  41. 41. Holistic Approach as a bundle of diversion, empowerment, visualization, and dialogue • Switched explanation for ID projects – Results are explained by counterpart experts. – Effective to share research thoughts. • Civic tech for TD projects – Citizens solve local social issues for themselves by using information and communication technologies (ICT) and open government data. (Matsuzaki 2017)
  42. 42. The continuity enhances the community tie. Con- tinue Facing the problem Providing ICT Providing knowledge Interested in the problem Interested in learning the knowledge and ICT Continuous commitment Solving the problem Interested in learning the knowledge and ICT Interested in the problem Workshop Providing ICT Providing knowledge Data sharing Skills & know- hows ICT tools enable remote contributions. Participants may come from remote places. An Example of Civic Tech Open data workshop “Hack the Terroir!” held at a winery in Hokkaido, Japan, July 2017 Illustration by S. Shimoyama

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