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• Need for increasing food production
• Improvement in crop yield
• Improvement in countries
Our country is second in population in
the world with 125 crores . For such a
huge population we will require 241
million tonnes of grain production per
annum to feed our people .Therefore it
is necessary to increase the production
of plants.This resulted in a variety of
“revolutions” which made India self –
reliant .These revolutions include green
revolution , blue revolution , white
revolution and yellow revolution.
• Kharif Crop :
• These crop grow during rainy season -
• [ June to October] .They are also known as
summer season crops .Few examples of kharif
crops are – Garlic ,lady finger, black gram,
green gram, plum ,peach etc.
• Rabi Crop:
• These crops are grown during November to
April . Rabi crops are known as winter crops .
• Some examples of rabi crops are – cabbage ,
cauliflower , carrot , radish , beans etc.
• The plant breeding means
production of new varieties or
stains by a programme of artificial
selection spanning several
generations of the organism
• Plant breeding is a science as well
as art of improving genetic make
up of plant in relation to their
economic use .
Plant Breeding for High
The art of recognising valuable traits and
incorporating them into future generation is
very important in plant breeding .
Breeder search for individual plants that
exhibit desirable traits .
The two most desirable qualities of food
plants are high yield and natural resistance to
Crop Improvement for high yield
Need for increasing food production
Our population is more than one billion and it is
still growing. We will need more than a billion
tones of grain every year to feed this growing
population. Since the area of land for cultivation is
limited, it is necessary to increase the production
efficiency of crops. The production efficiency of
crops can be increased by adopting scientific
management practices to improve crop yield,
undertaking mixed farming.
USA India Brazil Canada Argentina
Food production increase
Food production increased in 2012
Improvement in crop yield :-
Crop yield can be improved by three main
i) Crop variety improvement
ii) Crop production improvement
iii) Crop protection management
Crop variety improvement :-
• Crop variety improvement is done
by selecting good varieties of crops.
• Another way of improving crop
variety is by introducing a gene to
obtain the desired characteristic.
This produces genetically modified
Crop production management :-
Crop production management includes
i) Nutrient management
iii) Cropping management
Nutrient management :-
• Plants get nutrients from air, water
and soil. There are sixteen nutrients
required by plants for their proper
growth. Air supplies oxygen and
carbon dioxide, water supplies
hydrogen and the remaining thirteen
nutrients are obtained from the soil.
• The other seven are required in small
quantities and are called micro
nutrients. Soil can be enriched by
supplying nutrients in the form of
manures and fertilizers.
Manures :-manures are natural fertilizers .
They are bulky sources of organic matter
which supply nutrients in small quantities , and
organic matter in large quantities. Manure
enrich the soil with nutrients , they add
organic matter , the organic matter in
manures provides food for the soil organism .
Types of manure :- Farmyard Manure [FYM]
Compost: Prepared from farm and town
refuse such as vegetables and animal refuse
Manure & Fertilizers
• Fertilizers provide plant nutrients ,
commercially manufactured using chemicals.
Fertilizers supply Nitrogen, Phosphorus and
Potassium [NPK] .They are used for the
vegetative growth. Fertilizers are divided
into following group :-
• 1] Nitrogenous fertilizers
• 2] Phosphatic fertilizers
• 3] Potassic fertilizers
• 4] Complex fertilizers
Manure & Fertilizers
• The supply of water to the crops is
called irrigation. Water is necessary
for the proper growth of plants and
helps to increase crop yield.
• Different kinds if irrigation systems
are used to supply water to
agricultural land. They are wells,
canals, rivers, tanks etc.
Crop protection management:-
• Crops in the field are damaged by weeds,
insect pests . Weeds are unwanted plants
which grow in the field. Insect pests
cause damage to the root, stem and
leaves. They can reduce crop yield.
Storage of grains :-
• The factors responsible for the damage
and loss of grains are like bacteria, fungi,
insects etc. Before storage, the grains are
cleaned and dried in sunlight to remove
moisture and the storage places are
fumigated to kill pests.