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Method of research

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Method of research

  1. 1. METHOD OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to find answers and solutions to an inquiry or a question through scientific methods and procedures. Thus, you must become literate in research, you must sharpen your critical thinking skills and understand published research based-materials. In whatever field of specialization you are involved now, you must be ready to conduct research to strengthen your decisions.
  2. 2. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND  The Meaning of Research:  Research – is a scientific investigation of phenomena employing techniques, tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain adequate solutions to a problem.  This includes a methodology of collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data/facts towards the clarification or resolution of a problem.
  3. 3.  Aguinaldo (2002) defines research as a purposive, systematic, and scientific process of gathering , classifying, organizing, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for intervention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life.
  4. 4.  Sevilla, et. Al. (1992) defines research as “searching for theory, for testing theory or for solving a problem. It means a problem exists and has been identified and that the solution of the problem is necessary.”  Andres (1998) defines research as a “careful, critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles; a diligent investigation to ascertain something. It is unbiased investigation of a problem based, insofar as possible, on demonstrable facts, and involves refined distinctions, interpretations, and usually some generalizations.”
  5. 5.  Research integrates theory, education and practice. The theoretical formulation supported by research findings may become the foundations of theory- based practice in nursing. The educational setting an environment in which different theories can be explored and evaluated in light of research findings.
  6. 6. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  The history of research comprises many changes and developments. The groundwork for what has blossomed was laid in the nineteenth century and throughout the twentieth century. However, in reading a research article, people may be struck by the difference in style of format of a research article and a theoretical article. The terms may be new, and the focus of the content is different.
  7. 7. CRITICAL THINKING  A rational examination of ideas, inferences, assumptions, principles , arguments, conclusions, issues, statements, beliefs, and actions (Paul and Elder, 2001). This means that you are engage in:  1. Disciplined, self-directed thinking that exemplifies the perfection of thinking appropriate to a specific domain of thinking (research);  2. Thinking that displays a mastery of intellectual skills and abilities (use of criteria for critiquing research);  3. the art of thinking about one’s thinking while thinking to make one’s thinking better (i.e., more clear accurate, or more defensive) (clarifying what do you understand and what you don’t know)
  8. 8.  In other words, being critical thinker means that you are consciously thinking about your own thoughts and what you say, write, read, or do, as well as what others say, write or do. While thinking about all of this, you are questioning the appropriateness of the content, applying standards or criteria, and seeing how things measure up.
  9. 9. COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN RESEARCH  1. Difficulty in finding or conceptualizing a good research problem.  2. Scarcity or unavailability of updated and relevant references.  3. Financial (limited budget or funds).  4. Time constraints.  5. How to put into writing one’s own ideas.  6. Lack of teamwork among group members or inadequate assistance.  7. Uncooperative respondents or officials of an institution.  8. Personal problems get in a way of a good research work.  A Thesis is a research conducted by the students in partial fulfillment of their requirements in the undergraduate and / or master’s degree.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH  On order for a research to be considered a good research, it should meet the following criteria:  1. EMPIRICAL. Scientific is empirical in the sense that the research must subject his belief to empirical inquiry and test it against a reality- referent. Research is based on direct experiences or observations by the researcher. The collection of data relies on practical experiences without the benefits of scientific knowledge or theory.
  11. 11.  2. LOGICAL. Research is based on valid procedures and principles that makes it a valuable tool for decision-making. The emphasis is on testing rather than on proving the hypothesis. It applies every possible test to verify the data collected and the procedure employed. The researcher has confidence in the results since he resists the temptation to seek only data that supports the hypothesis. All findings and conclusions are logically based on empirical data and no effort is made to alter the results of the research.
  12. 12.  3. CYCLICAL.  ACCORDING TO Leedy (1980), research starts with a problem and ends with a problem.  For instance, the researcher starts with a question or an obstacle and even if the specific problem has been answered, the interpretation may speak off another problems, and another cycle is repeated.
  13. 13.  4. ANALYTICAL.  Research uses analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, or case study.  In historical research, the data gathered focus on the past,  in descriptive research, the study focuses on the present situation,  in experimental research , the study focuses on the future,  in case study, the focus on either past, present, or future.  There is a critical analysis in all the data used so that there is no error in the interpretation.
  14. 14.  5. REPLICABILITY.  The research involves recording, generalization and replication, its results are considered more transitory in nature than are the products of other problem solving process. The research design and procedure are replicated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. The more replicated the research is, the more valid and conclusive the results would be.
  15. 15.  6. CRITICAL.  Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Every research activity must be done accurately so that the findings will lead to a formulation of scientific generalization. All conclusions are based on actual evidence. It should brings a higher level of confidence and certainty to one’s understanding than what is possible by belief, faith or simplistic reasoning alone.
  16. 16.  7. UNIVERSAL.  Process and procedures are transmittable, which enables other researchers to replicate them and to assess their validity. The transmittable property of research is critical both to its role in extending knowledge and its role in decision making.  8. SYSTEMATIC.  Research follows the scientific method which includes the following steps.
  17. 17. SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING STEPS  A. identifying the problem;  B. formulating a hypothesis  C. doing the library research;  D. designing of the study;  E. developing the instrument for collecting data  F. collecting the data through the following method:  i. Interview,  Ii. Questionnaire;  Iii. Registration;  Iv. Experiment or observation  V. Case Study  G. Analyzing the data;  H. Determining the implications and conclusions based on the findings,  i. Writing of the recommendations for further research.
  18. 18. TYPES OF RESEARCH  Specific types of research according to its category: According To Inquiry  RATIONALISTIC INQUIRY begins with an existing theory. Formal instruments are used in categorizing the basis for collecting data and transforming such data into quantitative measures. Findings are generalized. The problems is converted into dependent and independent variables after which the researcher develops strategies and instruments to control relationships between and among naturally occurring variables. Once the steps of the research design are completed, the researcher returns to the theory formulated to interpret the results.
  19. 19.  NATURALISTIC INQUIRY evolves from man’s desire to understand human nature by studying environmental facts. It states that we must understand the framework within which the subjects under study interpret their environment to be able to understand human behavior. The individual’s thoughts, values, perceptions and actions are studied.
  20. 20. ACCORDING TO PURPOSE  THE TYPES OF RESEARCH according to purpose refers to the extent to which the finding are used.  1. Pure Research. Known as the Basic, Fundamental or Theoretical Research. It is done to discover the basic theories and principles. It is purely a gathering of truth and information. It serves to prove a theory or applied research which attempts to apply or put into practice the knowledge or theory learned.
  21. 21.  2. APPLIED RESEARCH.  known as “action research” is directed towards the practical application of knowledge. The theory may be supported, modified or revised. A new theory may even be provided. It covers mostly social science areas, entails large-scale studies with subsequent problems on data collection.
  22. 22.  3. DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH. It refers to the systematic work drawing on existing knowledge gained from the research and /or practical experience that is directed to producing new materials, product and devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, and to improving substantially those already produced or installed. This type of research is often used in engineering and technology areas.
  23. 23. ACCORDING TO TIME ALLOTMENT  1. Historical Research. It describes what occurred in the past and then makes a critical inquiry into the truth of what had occurred. It describes what it was. It is concerned with the past events or facts. Archeologists, paleontologists and historian try to discover what happened before, what took place in the past. Data are gathered through the collection of original documents or interviewing eye witnesses.
  24. 24.  2. Descriptive Research. According to Best, descriptive research describes what the study is. The study focuses at the present situation. The purpose is to find new truth. It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exists, practices that prevail processes that are going on, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. Descriptive research involves the elements or interpretation of the significance of what is described and the major emphasis is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Qualitative methods (case studies, content analysis, ethnographic studies) and quantitative methods (survey research , cross-sectional survey, longitudinal study, trend study, cohort study panel study and correlation research) uses descriptive research.
  25. 25.  3. Experimental Research. It describes what will be. It is a problem solving approach that describes the future of what will happen when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. John Dewey (1959) stressed that an experimental research represents directed observations guided by the purpose of the study and by understanding of the conditions. “Laboratory scientists and pharmacologists engage in experimental control groups. The experimental group receives the treatment (e. g., the medicine under the study) whereas the control group does not. Experimenters try to establish the relationship between the independent variable ( presumed cause) and the dependent variable (presumed effect). Relying on the results of the experiment, they predict outcomes of future events under similar circumstances.
  26. 26. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The final step that a student in research faces in writing a research paper or thesis is the formulation of research problem. A research problem is significant in the sense that will benefit a group of people or it will have open a new avenues in a particular discipline. A research problem should be stated clearly and unambiguously, usually in interrogative form. A good research problem should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound whether it is historical, descriptive, experimental, case study or any alternative studies. The research problem must posses certain elements namely: 1. WHY. This include the aims, objectives, targets, or purposes of the problem for investigation. 2. WHAT. The subject matter or topic to be investigated. 3. WHERE. The place or locate where the research is to be conducted. 4.WHEN. The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered. 5. WHO OR FROM WHOM. The population or universe from whom the data are to be collected. This answers the questions “who are the respondents”.
  27. 27. CHARACTERISTIC OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM An investigator knows that a problem is really researchable when 1. there is no known solution to the problem 2. the solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques, 3. there are probable solutions but they are not yet tested, or 4. the occurrence of phenomena require scientific investigation to arrive at precise conclusion. The research problem should be stated vividly and explicitly expressed in interrogative form for “question have the virtue of posing a problem directly.” A good research problem should be SMART, that is, Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound whether it is historical, descriptive, experimental, or case study.
  28. 28. The characteristic of a good problem possesses the acronym— SMART. This means that the research problem should be: 1. SPECIFIC. The problem should be specifically stated, 2. MEASURABLE. It is easy to measure by using research instruments such as questionnaire, test and others in collecting data, 3. ACHIEVABLE. The data are achievable using correct statistical techniques to arrive at precise results, 4. REALISTIC. Real results are not manipulated, and 5. TIME-BOUND. Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity the better. There are several source of research problems that a researcher can investigate. It is said that “Research was born out of man’s problems and man’s major problem demands research.
  29. 29. GUIDELINES OR CRITERIA IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM OR TOPICS 1. INTERESTING. An interesting research problem attracts the attention of the investigator to study the problem further. It also makes him determined to work on it until its completion. 2. RELEVENT TO THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE. Researcher must keep in mind that they work not for themselves only but also for other people’s needs. 3. INNOVATIVE. A good research problem may not be necessarily new. It may be a restatement and a restructuring of an old problem to make it new. In this manner, result will be more relevant and useful to a greater number of people.
  30. 30. 4. COST EFFECTIVE. The 4M’s—Man, Money, Materials, Machinery are needed in conducting research. A research problem should be economical and effective in solving the problem of the society, it should also augment social, economical and health conditions of the people and many others. 5. MEASURABLE AND TIME-BOUND. A good research problem is measurable by using research instruments like tests, questionnaires, rating scales, observation schedules or interviews, and statistical treatment to arrive at scientific and meaningful results. A good research can be completed within a time frame stated. The shorter completion of the project, the better. 6. IT MUST BE WITHIN THE SPECIALIZATION OF THE RESEARCHER. This will make his work easier because he is working on a familiar ground.
  31. 31. GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE TITLE The research title is the personality of your thesis and has a value in the bibliographical listings. The researcher should be guided by the characteristics of a good title. 1. The title must contain the subject matter of the study, the locale , the population involved, and the period when the data were gathered or will be gathered. It should summarize the contents of the thesis in few words 2. It must be brief, descriptive and concise, yet comprehensive as possible. 3. It must be broad enough to include all aspect of the subject matter studied or to be studied. It should be relevant and functional in relation to your research topic. 4. It should encapsulate the heart of your research topic. It should be interesting and has a name recall (read: boring titles collect dust in the library) 5. Using the terms “An analysis of”, “A study of”, “ An investigation of”, and the like must be avoided since this things are understood to have been done or to be done when a research is conducted. One title must be written like an inverted pyramid if it contains more than one line.
  32. 32. PRELIMINARY PARTS 1. THE TITLE PAGE The title page of a research report, thesis, or dissertation should be a specific and concise statement of the topic and should refer to the major variables or theoretical issues investigated. Its principal function is to inform the reader about the study, therefore, it should be explanatory by itself. The title should be written briefly but it must contain the following: the variables of the study and the relationship among the variables, and the target population. Twenty substantive words, function words not included, is the maximum allowance length of a title 2. THE APPROVAL SHEET It is immediately follows the title page. It generally contains a statement of acceptance of the research report. For master’s and bachelor’s theses, only the adviser’s and the dean’s signature are required. The approval sheet is not the same as the form signed by the panel members immediately after the defense of the research paper.
  33. 33. 3. ACKNOLEDGEMENT SHEET The acknowledgement sheet contains the writer’s expression of appreciation for the assistance and encouragement given him in the course of his research. As much as possible the Acknowledgement should not exceed two pages, double- spaced. The acknowledgement sheet follows the approval sheet. The acknowledgement should be simple and sincere. The writer should avoid overdoing the expression of his gratitude. Only those who gave assistance without payment should be mentioned in the acknowledgement. Typists and others who have been paid for their services should not be included in the acknowledgement. 4. ABSTRACT The abstract is a brief summary of the research. Generally, it gives a concise report of the problem, the methodology used, and the findings and conclusions. The abstract allows the readers to survey the contents of the research report quickly. The abstract should be limited to two double-spaced type written pages. It should include a brief description of the background purpose of the study, a statement of the conceptual or theoretical framework and hypothesis(ses), a specification of subject or samples ( ethnic group, age, sex, number), research design, the instrument and data gathering procedure and main conclusions.
  34. 34. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This thesis aims to contribute significantly to researcher, the readers and business sector in hospitality Industry. This study will contribute to basic information and will serve as guide to produce the results. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This thesis covers and focused on the similarities and differences o BS HRM from BS HRM -CLM. This involved BS HRM and BS HRM -CLM students regardless of their year, age, and gender as primary source of information and data needed for the success of the study. METHODOLOGY This study was conducted during SY 2007-2008, The respondents were selected through random sampling in which everyone has an equal chance of being selected to be included in the sample. It used descriptive method of research specifically survey which used questionnaire to gather the needed data.
  35. 35. The researcher used frequency distribution and percentage to analyze and interpret the data gathered. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS (example) The similarities and differences of BS HRM from BS HRM-CLM as a program revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agree that both HRM and HRM-CLM cater to one industry, the hospitality industry. Hospitality industry is one of the oldest industries ever since people have gone out for eating and pleasure. CONCLUSIONS (example )  Both program cater to the Hospitality Industry.  Both HRM and HRM –CLM graduates have job opportunities in land-based operation.  HRM graduates have the opportunity to work on board like HRM –CLM graduates.  Both graduates of the program have the edge to work on land-based operation.  Both graduates of HRM and HRM –CLM work as operations manager, controller, purchaser, food and beverage manager, cook, bartender, dining supervisor, food attendant, steward, receptionist, housekeeper, and concierge.
  36. 36.  Both HRM and HRM –CLM students used the kitchen laboratory, Casa Intramuros, and Le Café.  Both HRM and HRM –CLM students have the knowledge and application in catering and banquet service , food and beverage service, baking and cake decorating, financial management, basic computer skills, front desk service, housekeeping service, culinary techniques and at least one foreign language.  Both HRM and HRM –CLM have different subject offerings.  HRM don’t have to undergo Basic Safety Training like HRM –CLM students.  HRM –CLM graduates have the edge to work on board than HRM graduates.
  37. 37. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS The table of contents lists the preliminary parts, the Chapter titles along with the subdivisions of the body of the report, and the supplementary materials in the appendix. 6. LIST OF TABLES Tables should be listed separately from the chapter and section headings. It contains all the tables presented in the research paper with the corresponding numbers and titles/captions. 7. LIST OF FIGURES Titles of pictures, graphs, charts and other illustrative materials are all included in the list of figures. It contains all figures presented in the research work with the corresponding number and titles/caption
  38. 38. WRITING THE INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 of the thesis is in essence an introduction of the research study. It outlines the backgrounds, rationale, statement of the problem, theoretical and conceptual framework, hypothesis and assumption of the study scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study and the definition of term. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The introduction or background of the Study section gives an overview of the thesis. It introduce the reader the general direction of the thesis, the context wherein which it was conceptualized and the motivations behind the researcher’s decisions to choose the particular research area. It should be written in a direct and objective manner. The use of simple words and statement is encouraged, while flowery and literary phrases are avoided.
  39. 39.  Tips and Elements of the Introduction or Background of the Study Since a thesis is a formal presentation of the study, it should therefore include the following: 1. THE PROBLEM BEING INVESTIGATED. The research should explain what the problem is all about particularly the main variables or factors that are covered by the study, a brief historical background, and the research local may also help to describe the setting of the problem. Likewise, the subjects who were involved and how the researcher investigated the problem. Discuss the overview of your research area. 2. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY. Refers to the reason(s) why a study on a particular topic is necessary. A researcher may state his views based from some related literature and studies he/she gathered, or from what he/she observed. Outline the type of research undertaken. State the study’s objects of analysis to orient the reader on the focus of the research.
  40. 40. 3. MEASUREMENT or INSTRUMENT. Mentioning briefly the instrument and it uses can provide an ides to the reader on how the researcher studied the problem. Outline the research approach or paradigm used for the study whether qualitative or quantitative. Discuss the underlying theoretical and conceptual framework. 4. CITATION OF SOME PREVIOUS RESEARCHES. These can generally strengthen the reason for investigation. The researcher must establish a clear picture of the prevailing problem by presenting some previous studies that are related to the present research. Review existing studies relevant directly or indirectly to the study and state how the study will offer new knowledge. 5. GENERALLY, ORIENT THE READER ON WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE THESIS. A good introduction should contain facts or information that is based from credible sources like professional journals, master’s theses, or dissertations. An introduction is not necessarily too lengthy, rather a two or three page is sufficient is enough to encourage the reader of the purpose of such study.
  41. 41. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The section state the research problem of the study (main area of inquiry ) to be investigated through factual data gathering and interpretation during the course of the thesis project. It should be developed first before conducting the research. It is usually expressed as (1) main problem (2) specific problem. The purpose of the study encompasses the aim or goals the investigator hopes to achieve with research, not the problem to be solved.
  42. 42. CHARACTERISTIC OF A GOOD RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Relevant to the research topic (if scientific research: shows relationships between variables) 2. Clear and shows the implied question form of the problem area 3. Specific and measurable or can be tested and investigated 4. Neutral in tone 5. Indicates the thesis direction in terms of theoretical and practical contribution to the thesis solution..  The following must considered in writing the statement of the problem: 1. The general statement of the problem is written in a declarative form. The general statement of the problem is usually stated in a declarative form and covers the broad problem area. It also covers the intent of the investigation in a clear, grammatical sequence and conceptual framework and methodology. Lastly, it is usually an expression of an implied ‘why’ and ‘how’ question.
  43. 43.  A. Each sub-problem is a complete research unit or a logical sub-component of the larger research question for data interpretation  B. It adds totality to the research question. Specific question + main problem = research area  C. It contributes to the solution of the main problem  D. Each sub-problem can be tested separately but it will result to findings directly related to the main problem
  44. 44. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  The theoretical framework shapes the justification of the research problem objectives in order to provide the basis or its parameter.  1. It serves as the legal basis to describe properly of the study.  2. it is a symbolic construction with uses abstract concept, facts or laws, variables and their relations that explains and predicts how an observed phenomenon exists and operates.
  45. 45. CONT.  In planning and writing the theoretical framework, it is note worthy to cite the theory that will be used by giving assumptions.  Defining terms concepts identifying the variables, and stating the relationship of variables and presenting hypothesis.  The conceptual framework presents specific and well-defined concepts which are called construct s. its function is similar with theoretical framework because the constructs used are derived from abstract, concept of the theoretical framework.
  46. 46.  Research has theoretical underpinnings that provide justification for the study or inquiry.  It is used to guide and direct the research towards data analysis and interpretation. Thus, it is a summary of all the theories referred to by the researcher to guide his/her research.
  47. 47. USES OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  1. Narrow down the research area.  2. Suggests ways that yield the meaning for the findings  3. Predicts facts that can be found through investigation.  4. Organizes data gathering procedure since the study is anchored on a theory.  5. Guides the discovery of new knowledge and generalizations.  Note: It is suggested that communication theories to be used are directly related to each other and the research topic.
  48. 48.  On the other hand, conceptual framework refers to the set of concepts used for the research study. The researcher should demonstrate that ideas and concepts deduced from the working theories and synthesized in the research paradigm are also organized around the research problem too.