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Site planning kevin lynch

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Site planning kevin lynch

  1. 1. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW RAP
  2. 2. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION Site Planning is defined by Kevin Lynch as “the art of arranging structures on the land and shaping the spaces between; an art linked to architecture, engineering, landscape architecture and city planning.” (Site Planning) Harvey M. Rubenstein defines it as ”the art and science of arranging the uses of portions of land. These uses are designated in detail by selecting and analyzing sites, forming land use plans, organizing vehicular and pedestrian circulation, developing visual form and materials concepts, readjusting the existing landforms by design grading, providing proper drainage, and developing the construction details necessary to carry out the projects”. (A Guide to Site and Environmental Planning, 1980) SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  3. 3. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION In site planning, as in other forms of problem-solving, the critical thinking process of research, analysis and synthesis makes a major contribution to the formation of design decisions. • Research material may be gathered from existing projects, books photographs, or experiments. A program is then formulated and the elements required to develop the project is listed. • Analysis of the site shall consider all existing features, both natural and man-made in order to determine those inherent qualities that give a site its ‘personality’. A topographical analysis is mandatory. Emphasis should be made on the site’s relationship with the total environment and its special values or potentials . SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  4. 4. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION There are two methods of establishing a SITE : 1. SITE SELECTION PROCESS This process selects from a list of potential sites one that suits best the given use and requirements of the project . 2. DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY PROCESS This process selects the best possible use and development suited for a given site . SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  5. 5. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION SITE ANALYSIS involves the study of the site in terms of the following : Natural factors : 1. Geology 2. Geomorphology – physiography, landforms, soils, drainage, topography and slopes, and soil erosion 3. Hydrology – surface and ground water 4. Vegetation – plant ecology 5. Wildlife – habitats 6. Climate – solar orientation, wind, and humidity. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  6. 6. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION SITE ANALYSIS Cultural factors : 1. Existing land use – ownership of adjacent property, off- site nuisances 2. Traffic and transit – vehicular and pedestrian circulation on or adjacent to site 3. Density and zoning – legal and regulatory controls 4. Socio-economic factors 5. Utilities – sanitary, storm-water, water supply, power supply, and communications. 6. Historic factors – historic buildings, landmarks, and archeology SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  7. 7. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING INTRODUCTION SITE ANALYSIS : Aesthetic factors : 1. Natural features 2. Spatial patterns – spaces and sequences 3. Visual Resources – views and vistas SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  8. 8. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  9. 9. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOLOGY is the natural science that studies the Earth – its composition; the processes that shaped its surface; and its history. Earth is made up of rocks (including soil, sand, silt and dust); rocks are composed of minerals; minerals are made up of atoms : Igneous Rocks – rocks produced by crystallization from a liquid. THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  10. 10. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOLOGY Sedimentary Rocks – when igneous rocks are exposed to surface and weathering reduces them to particles, these particles are moved by erosional process and deposited in layers into rivers and oceans . SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  11. 11. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOLOGY Metamorphosed Rocks – when sedimentary rocks are pushed to deeper levels of the earth, they transform into metamorphosed rocks due to changes in pressure and temperature . SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  12. 12. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY - is that branch of Geology that deals with the origin, nature and distribution of landforms. Physiography – refers to the description of landforms. Landforms – are irregularities on the earth’s surface. They are derived from volcanic, glacial, or erosional processes. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  13. 13. • Soil Properties – Composition and Soil Texture • Drainage • Topography and Slopes • Soil Erosion SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY When designing a piece of property for architectural, landscape architectural and engineering usage, it is essential for the designer to first confront the nature of the land, particularly its form, its slopes, and its inherent capabilities for surface and subsurface discharge of water, for supporting vertical and horizontal structures, and for resisting erosion. This exercise requires four basic geomorphologic information such as : SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  14. 14. 1. COMPOSITION 2. TEXTURE SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY In site planning, it is important to establish the relationship between soil composition and land uses (other than agriculture). Soil surveys help guide in site selection for residential, industrial, and other forms of development that involve surface and subsurface structures. Several features, or properties, are used to describe soil for use in site design. Of these --- are generally the most meaningful; from them we can make inferences about bearing capacity, internal drainage, erodibility, and slope stability. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  15. 15. 1. COMPOSITION refers to the material that makes up soil: SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY SOIL PROPERTIES: organic matter,mineral particles, water, and air. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  16. 16. a. Mineral Particles comprise 50% to 80% of the volume of the soil and form the all important skeletal structure of the soil. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY COMPOSITION: Sand and gravel particles provide for the greatest stability, usually yield a relat- ively high bearing capacity, • Bearing capacity is a soil’s resistance to penetration from a weighted object such as a building foundation. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  17. 17. BEARING CAPACITY FOR ROCK AND SOIL MATERIALS Clas s Material Allowable Bearing Value (psf) 1 Rock Massive crystalline bedrock, e.g. granite, gneiss 200,000 2 Metamorphosed rock, e.g. schist, slate 80,000 3 Sedimentary rocks, e.g. shale, sandstone 30,000 4 Soil materials Well compacted gravels and sands 20,000 5 Compact gravel, sand/gravel mixtures 12,000 6 Loose gravel, compact coarse sand 8,000 7 Loose coarse sand; loose sand/gravel mixtures, compact fine sand, wet coarse sand 6,000 8 Loose fine sand, wet fine sand 4,000 9 Stiff clay (dry) 8,000 10 Medium-stiff clay 4,000 11 Soft clay 2,000 12 Fill, organic material, or silt (fixed by field tests) COMPOSITION
  18. 18. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS b. Organic Matter varies radically in soils and usually imposes a limitation to any building structure. Organic matter is important only for soil fertility, moisture absorption and retention and for landscaping. GEOMORPHOLOGY COMPOSITION: c. Water content varies with particle sizes, local drainage, topography and climate. Most water occupies the spaces between particles; only in organic soils do the particles themselves actually absorb measurable amounts of water. d. Air is what occupies remaining space that is not occupied by water. In layers where groundwater is formed by gravity water in the subsoil and underlying rock, there is absence of air. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  19. 19. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY TEXTURE - is the term used to describe the composite sizes of particles in a soil sample. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  20. 20. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY TEXTURE There are 12 basic terms for texture, at the center of which is Class LOAM, ClayLoamSand which is an intermediate mixture of 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  21. 21. GOOD DRAINAGE refers to the soil’s ability to transfer gravity water downward through: SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY DRAINAGE: 2. Permeability - the rate at which water within the soil moves through a given volume of material (also measured in cm or inches per hour) 1. Infiltration - the rate at which water penetrates the soil surface (usually measured in cm or inches per hour); 3. Percolation - the rate at which water in a soil pit or pipe within the soil is taken up by the soil (used mainly in wastewater absorption tests and measured in inches per hour) SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  22. 22. POOR DRAINAGE - means that gravity water is not readily transmitted by the soil and soil is frequently or permanently saturated and may have water standing on it caused by : SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY DRAINAGE: 2. A rise in the level of groundwater within the soil column; 1. The local accumulation of water ; 3. The size of the particles in the soil being too small to transmit infiltration water. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  23. 23. SLOPE ANALYSIS -- GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW Understanding slope forms for site design requires understanding of local geologic, soil, hydrologic, and vegetative conditions.
  24. 24. SLOPE FORM -- is expressed graphically in terms of a slope profile, a silhouette of a slope drawn to known proportions with distance on the horizontal axis and elevation on the vertical axis SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES SITE PLANNING REVIEW Four basic slope forms are detectable on contour maps: straight S - shape concave convex
  25. 25. ANGLE OF REPOSE -- angle at which soil can be safely inclined and beyond which it will fail. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  26. 26. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS TOPOGRAPHIC MAP – a map of a portion of the earth that describes the shape of the earth’s surface by contour lines. GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES 7,000 6,000
  27. 27. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS TOPOGRAPHIC MAP Contours – are imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation on the surface of the land above or below a reference surface such as the mean sea level. Contours make it possible to measure the height of mountains, depth of the ocean bottoms, and steepness of slopes . GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
  28. 28. SLOPE ANALYSIS -- GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW 0 – 5% Generally flat Highly buildable 5 – 10% Gently rolling Moderately buildable 10 – 15% Gentle to mild slopes Moderately difficult to build 15 – 20% Mild to steep slopes Difficult to build 20% and over Harsh, steep slopes Unbuildable is an important analytical process made on a topographic map that makes a proper match between land uses and slopes and produces an overall pattern of slopes which helps the site planner in determining the buildable portions of the site. SLOPE PATTERN for ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL CAMPUS THE NATURAL FACTORS The process involves breaking down of topography into grades which will establish the desired patterns for a given land use as in the following example :
  29. 29. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS In the analysis of the slopes, the distances for each Slope Pattern are computed from the given topographic map, for use on the Slope Map. GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES To compute the Distance of a slope from a topographic contour map : % slope contour interval D distance = 10.00 m . 5 % D distance = X 100 X 100 D distance = 200.00 m for slope pattern 0-5 % This distance unit will figure in the graduated scale that will be constructed for use in the slope map.
  30. 30. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES A Slope Map is prepared to visually express these slope patterns on the topographic map. Here’s how to: a. Establish the site boundaries on the map. b. Make a constructed graduated scale on the edge of a cardboard sheet, representing the distances of each slope pattern (using same scale as the topo map). c. Place the scale on the map (see illustration above) and mark the edges where the scale matches the distances between contour lines. d. Color- or hatch-code each area delineated by these edges. The result is a colored or gradient-hatched SLOPE MAP.
  31. 31. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES The result is a colored or gradient-hatched SLOPE MAP.
  32. 32. DESIRABLE SLOPES – when slopes are selected according to building type and the activities associated with it. GEOMORPHOLOGY TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW -- Flat or gently sloping sites are preferred for industrial and commercial buildings -- Hilly sites are preferred for fashionable suburban residences. Slopes influence the alignment of modern roads according to class of roads; the higher the class, the lower the maximum grades allowable. THE NATURAL FACTORS
  33. 33. SLOPE REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS LAND USES Land Use Maximum Minimum Optimum Housing Sites 20% - 25% 0% 2% Playgrounds 2% - 3% .05% 1% Public Stairs 50% --- 25% Lawns (mowed) 25% --- 2% -- 3% Septic Drainfields* 15% 0% .05% Paved Surfaces Parking Lots 3% .05% 1% Sidewalks 8% 0% 1% Streets and Roads 15% -- 17% --- 1% 20 mph 12% 30 mph 10% 40 mph 8% 50 mph 7% 60 mph 5% 70 mph 4% Industrial Sites Factories 3% - 4% 0% 2% Lay Down Storage 3% .05% 1% Parking 3% .05% 1% * Special drainfield designs are required at slopes above 10 to 12 percent.
  34. 34. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SOIL EROSION – when rocks are broken down (weathered) into small fragments, and carried by wind, water, ice and gravity. Energy for this process is solar and gravitational. SITE PLANNING REVIEW GEOMORPHOLOGY
  35. 35. GEOMORPHOLOGY SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SOIL EROSION PREVENTION Four factors to consider in forecasting erosion rates: vegetation soil type frequency and intensity of rainfall slope size and inclination THE NATURAL FACTORS
  36. 36. GEOMORPHOLOGY SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SOIL EROSION PREVENTION 1. Vegetation: • Foliage intercepts raindrops • Organic litter on the ground reduces impact of raindrops • Roots bind together aggregates of soil particles • Cover density, in form of ground cover or tree canopy, decreases soil loss to runoff THE NATURAL FACTORS
  37. 37. GEOMORPHOLOGY SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SOIL EROSION PREVENTION 2. Soil Type: • Intermediate textures like sand will usually yield (erode) first • To erode clay, the velocity of the runoff should be high enough to overcome cohesive forces that bind the particles together • Similarly, high velocities would be needed to move masses of pebbles and particles larger than those of sand THE NATURAL FACTORS
  38. 38. GEOMORPHOLOGY SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SOIL EROSION PREVENTION 3. Slope Size and Inclination: • The velocity of runoff is closely related to the slope of the ground over which it flows. Slopes that are both steep and long produce the greatest erosion because they generate runoff that is high in velocity and mass. • Slope also influences the quantity of runoff since long slopes collect more rainfall and thus generate a larger volume of runoff. THE NATURAL FACTORS
  39. 39. GEOMORPHOLOGY SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SOIL EROSION PREVENTION 4. Frequency and Intensity of Rainfall: • Intensive rainfalls produced by thunderstorms promote the highest rates of erosion. • Accordingly, the incidence of storms plus total annual rainfall can be a reliable measure of the effectiveness of rainfall in promoting soil erosion. THE NATURAL FACTORS
  40. 40. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS HYDROLOGY Hydrologic cycle – or the planet’s water cycle, described by the movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the continents and back to the sea . – the natural science that studies the Waters of the Earth, their occurrence, circulation and distribution, their chemical and physical properties, and their reaction to the living environment including their relation to all living things. SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  41. 41. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS HYDROLOGY Water table – is the upper boundary of the zone of groundwater; the top of unconfined aquifer . SITE PLANNING REVIEW
  42. 42. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS HYDROLOGY Aquifer – A permeable geological stratum or formation that can both store and transmit groundwater in significant quantities.
  43. 43. SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS HYDROLOGY Watershed – a geographic area of land bounded by topographic features and height of land that captures precipitation, filters and stores water and drains waters to a shared destination. Knowledge of watershed boundaries is critical to water quality and storm water management.
  44. 44. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 1. Climatic control 2. Environmental Engineering 3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW The relevance of Plant Materials in site planning is in their role in :
  45. 45. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 1. Climatic control VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW a. Solar Radiation – is Earth’s source of light and heat. It warms the earth’s surface, is reflected by paving and other objects, and produces glare. Trees are one of the best controls for solar radiation because: • they block or filter sunlight; • they cool the air under their canopies providing natural air conditioning; Scientists have recorded that with an air temperature of 84deg F, surface temp of a concrete paving was 108 deg, while surface temp under shade trees were 20deg lower.
  46. 46. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 1. Climatic control VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW b. Wind – helps to control temperature. When winds are of low velocity, they may be pleasant, but when velocity increases, may cause discomfort or damage. Trees help to buffer winds in urban areas caused by convection and Venturi effects.
  47. 47. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 1. Climatic control VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW c. Precipitation . Plants help to control precipitation reaching the ground. By intercepting rain and slowing it down, they aid in moisture retention, and in the prevention of soil erosion. They also help soil retain water by providing shade, or protection from the wind, or by water shedding function of trees’ roots.
  48. 48. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW a. Air Purification – Plants clean air through the process of photosynthesis where they use up carbon dioxide emissions of cars and trucks and in the process release oxygen into the air. Trees also help filter out other pollutants, i.e. sulfur dioxide, dust, pollen, and smoke.
  49. 49. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW b. Noise – To understand noise: The sound level of normal conversation is about 60 decibels; a plane taking off produces 120 decibels at a distance of 200 ft. Sound energy usually spreads out and dissipates in transmission. Sound waves can be absorbed, reflected or deflected. Plants absorb sound waves through their leaves, branches, twigs, especially those with thick fleshy leaves and thin petioles.
  50. 50. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: b. Noise thick fleshy leaves and thin petioles
  51. 51. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: b. Noise Tree trunks deflect sounds and it has been estimated that a 100 ft. depth of forest can reduce sound by 21 decibels.
  52. 52. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: c. Glare and Reflection – Plants reduce glare and reflection caused by sunlight. A light source received directly produces primary glare while reflected light is secondary glare. Plants may be used to filter or block glare by use of plants with the appropriate size, shape, and foliage density.
  53. 53. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: d. Erosion Control – Plants are a primary means of preventing erosion from stormwater runoff and of controlling erosion during construction. Erosion is also minimized by the plants action of intercepting rain, decreasing splash, and increased water absorption.
  54. 54. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Environmental Engineering VEGETATION: d. Erosion Control Vegetation with extensive root systems imparts stability to slopes. On sandy slopes, the presence of woody vegetation can increase the angle of repose by 10 to 15 degrees. Vitiveria ziziainoides or Vitiver Grass ‘miracle’ grass of amazing bio-engineering capabilities.
  55. 55. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses VEGETATION: a. Space Definition – Plants can help in several ways: as wall elements to form outdoor spaces, as canopies to provide shade, or as ground covers to provide color and texture on the base plane.
  56. 56. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW 3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses VEGETATION: b. View Control – While trees and shrubs can screen out objectionable views, they can also provide backdrops for sculpture and fountains. Additionally, they may provide filtered views of buildings or spaces, or frame a view, maximizing its effect.
  57. 57. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS 3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses VEGETATION: SITE PLANNING REVIEW c. Mood – Plants affects peoples’ moods.
  58. 58. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS Wildlife relates closely to habitats provided by plant communities. The three groups of habitat elements essential to the different species of wildlife are: WILDLIFE: SITE PLANNING REVIEW 1. Openland Wildlife – includes birds and mammals commonly associated with crop fields, meadows, pastures, and non-forested lands. Habitat elements essential for openland wildlife include: a. Grain and seed crops b. Grasses and legumes c. Wild herbaceous upland plants d. Hardwood woody plants 2. Woodland Wildlife – These species need various combinations of: a. Grasses and legumes b. Wild herbaceous upland plants c. Hardwood woody plants d. Cone-bearing shrubs such as pines.
  59. 59. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW WILDLIFE: 3. Wetland Wildlife – wetland species include birds and mammals needing habitats with: a. Wetland food plants or wild herbaceous plants of moist to wet sites, excluding submerged or floating aquatic plants; b. Shallow water development with water impoundments not deeper than 5 ft.; c. Excavated ponds with ample supply of water at least one acre and average 6ft depth. d. streams
  60. 60. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW CLIMATE: In each, a site should be investigated in terms of: a. Solar orientation for buildings; b. The best facing slopes; and c. Wind flows for breezes. Climates can be generally classified into four types: COLD, TEMPERATE, HOT ARID and HOT HUMID.
  61. 61. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING REVIEW CLIMATE: Solar orientation
  62. 62. SITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS CLIMATE: Best facing slopes Temperatures vary with elevation – by about 3 deg for every 1000 ft. (300m) in the daytime. The more perpendicular a slope is to the rays of the sun, the warmer the surface temperature.
  63. 63. SITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS CLIMATE: Wind flows Abrupt forms cause unpleasant air turbulence. Smooth forms induce smooth flow of air.
  64. 64. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE NATURAL FACTORS SITE PLANNING CONCEPT USING NATURAL FACTORS: SITE PLANNING REVIEW PASSIVE COOLING – the technology of cooling spaces through proper siting of structure and use of energy-efficient materials, with the overall objective of energy conservation. • Solar Orientation • Altitude • Topography • Vegetation • Water Bodies
  65. 65. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW THE CULTURAL FACTORS
  66. 66. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS EXISTING LAND USE: Land Use Plans are available in each city and municipality to determine the areas for commercial, institutional, industrial, residential, and open space uses. These were planned according to the most rational use of land in relation to the natural and socio-economic factors, and in accordance with compatibility with adjacent land uses. SITE PLANNING REVIEW Each site must conform to the land use plan: a residential subdivision, for example, cannot be developed in a site designated as Industrial. THE CULTURAL FACTORS
  67. 67. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS TRAFFIC AND TRANSIT SYSTEMS: The relationship of traffic pattern to each other and to the site must be studied for adequacy of access and efficiency of circulation within and outside of the site. SITE PLANNING REVIEW Efficient traffic and transportation systems will result in successful integration of the different developments in the vicinity. Direction of dominant traffic flow, both vehicular and pedestrian will also help establish points of highest visual impact for the site. Access must also consider pedestrian movement.
  68. 68. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS DENSITY AND ZONING: Density refers to the population per unit land area. This data will determine whether existing utilities and land areas will be sufficient to sustain additional future development, which will naturally add to the existing population and bear on the capacity of these utilities. SITE PLANNING REVIEW Density is expressed in number of families or dwelling units per hectare. It may also be expressed in Floor Area Ratio (FAR). Density influences the privacy, social contact among people, and freedom of movement of an individual or a group of people. Zoning regulations, laws and codes are present in every city and municipality to regulate the type of development. It divides the city or municipality into land use areas that are designated by building height, building coverage, density of population, and open space.
  69. 69. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS: The study of the community and its social and economic structures are done to determine whether there is a need, an interest, or any objections on the project. SITE PLANNING REVIEW Any proposed project must be compatible with the economy of the particular community. For example, a high-end boutique is hardly suitable in a low- income community. The social structure of the community must be taken into consideration to ensure that a proposed development will not result in any displaced families, and any major disruption in their businesses and other activities.
  70. 70. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS UTILITIES / SERVICES: It is important to determine the existing availability of utilities on site in terms of adequacy and efficiency. This includes: SITE PLANNING REVIEW • Sanitary/sewage system • Electric power supply • Water supply • Drainage Most water systems will supply domestic, industrial, and fire stand-by supply from a distribution system. Storm drains collect surface water and conduct it to rivers, creeks, or other bodies of water.
  71. 71. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE CULTURAL FACTORS HISTORIC FACTORS: 1. Historic Buildings SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Historic Landmarks 3. Archeology
  72. 72. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING SITE PLANNING REVIEW THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
  73. 73. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE AESTHETIC FACTORS NATURAL FEATURES: When sites are characterized by outstanding natural features of earth, rock, water or plant material, SITE PLANNING REVIEW these may be incorporated in the site development as natural assets of the land. THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
  74. 74. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE AESTHETIC FACTORS SPATIAL PATTERNS: Spatial pattern is defined as the way an open space of a given site is configured according to an arrangement of elements that evoke activity or flow, both physically or SITE PLANNING REVIEW visually.
  75. 75. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE AESTHETIC FACTORS VISUAL RESOURCES: 1. View – is a scene observed from a vantage point. SITE PLANNING REVIEW A view can be a theme that may suggest and give added meaning to buildings. The full view is not always the best view.
  76. 76. SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE AESTHETIC FACTORS VISUAL RESOURCES: SITE PLANNING REVIEW 2. Vista – is a confined view, usually directed toward a terminal or dominant feature. It has three components: a viewing station, a view, and a foreground. A view is usually better if enframed or seen through an appropriate screen.
  77. 77. End of Site Planning Lecture SITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNINGSITE PLANNING THE FINAL PRODUCT SITE PLANNING REVIEW

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