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Booklet for IT coaches

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Booklet for IT coaches

  1. 1.     Coaching  Distributed  Agile  Projects   Tutorial  booklet       Jaroslav  Procházka   Tomáš  Tureček   jarekprochazka@gmail.com   tomas.turecek@rainfellows.com  
  2. 2. About  the  authors     About  Jaroslav   Jaroslav   Procházka   works   as   a   Lean   coach   at   Tieto   Corporation   and   has   been   about   10   years   in   IT,   started   as   Java   developer.   He   has   5+   years   coaching   and   mentoring   experience   in   distributed   environment:   coaching   development,   support  and  maintenance  teams  inside  and  outside  Tieto.   Jaroslav   earned   his   PhD   at   University   of   Ostrava   in   2007   and   is   also   teaching   Software  development  and  Information  Systems  there.  He  speaks  at  international   conferences   like   IBM   RSDC   Conference   2009   or   Information   Systems   Development  2010.   About  Tomáš   Tomáš  Tureček  has  been  working  in  IT  for  more  than  10  years  in  various  roles   from   development   to   management.   He   works   as   Agile   and   Lean   coach   in   Tieto   Corporation.  He  has  more  than  5  years  experience  from  coaching  and  mentoring   deliveries   in   distributed   environment   where   he   was   implementing   Agile   and   Lean  principles.   Tomas  has  earned  his  PhD  degree  at  VŠB  Technical  University  of  Ostrava  in  2010   where  he  has  been  giving  lectures  from  area  of  Software  development  for  more   than  9  years.  Among  others  he  contributes  to  communities  around  such  as  Java   User   Group   or   IT   Academy   and   speaks   at   prestigious   international   conferences   such  as  XP2010.     2     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  3. 3.   The  way  to  overcome  distribution  –  14weeks  framework     As   the   mean   of   transport   to   overcome   distribution   we   use   14   weeks   transformation   framework.   It   is   proven   and   ready-­‐made   packaged   solution   leading  to  significant  improvements  in  Lead  time,  quality  and  EBIT.     Continuous improvement • Improvement (A3) discussion and implementation • Internal coach education • Hands-on support Independence • Team self-improvement • On demand consultancy Focus / Kick-off • Common understanding of situation, motivation • Top issues captured (Kaizen workshop) Introduction • Transformation goals • Lean Awareness / Game • Key terms and tools • Investment: 6 man-days extra time in 14 weeks for core team members • Components: • • • • Lean Awareness workshops Kaizen workshop Bi-weekly follow-ups Additional tools and materials     It  is  last  evolution  step  of  our  coaching  way  of  working  based  on  5  year  coaching   and  mentoring  experience.   This  framework  contains  among  others  following  tools:   • • • • • • • 3     Kaizen  workshop   ……………………………………………………   Value  stream  mapping        …………………………………………….   Root  cause  analysis          …………………………………………………   A3/A5  concept      ………………………………………………………...   Efficient  meetings  for  follow-­‐ups      ……………………………..   Our  own  coach  manifesto      ………………………………………...   Agile  and  Lean  principles  and  practices   ©2011  Tieto  Corporation   page  4   page  5   page  6   page  8   page  10   page  12  
  4. 4. Kaizen  Workshop  guideline     Critical   aspect   of   workshop   is   to   choose   the   right   people,   motivated   to   change   things,  having  decision  power,  mixed  roles  and  perspectives.  Workshop  itself  has   following  four  steps:   (1)  Agree  on   common  goal  and   map  end-­‐to-­‐end   value  stream   (2)  Visualize   perceived  issues   (3)  Investigate  root   causes   (4)  Brainstorm   ideal  solutions   and  small   “Kaizen”  steps   4     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  5. 5.   Value  stream  mapping   Value   streams   mapping   (VSM)   help   us   to   visualize   the   flow   of   end   to   end   activities   delivering   the   value   to   our   customer,   starting   with   customer   request,   ending   with   customer   consuming   the   result.   Value   creating   activities   can   be   necessary  or  unnecessary,  we  call  those  unnecessary  waste.     VSM  helps  us  to  understand  what  waste  can  be  eliminated.  As  a  lead  we  use  Lean   principles  and  hints  such  as  following  most  common  IT  wastes:   1. Waiting  and  delays   2. Gold  plating  (over  production)     Jeffrey  K.  Liker  (The  Toyota  way  author):   3. Rework  and  defects   “Most  business  processes  are  90  percent   4. Partially  done  work   waste  and  10  percent  value-­‐added  work.”   5. Relearning   6. Handoffs   7. Task  Switching       One   of   Lean   goals   is   to   eliminate   waste.   When   we   identify   what   are   directly   value-­‐adding   activities   for   our   customers   (necessary   one)   the   remaining   activities  are  considered  as  waste.  Behind  this  elimination  is  question  “Can  we  do   things  in  a  smarter  way?”.   To   get   more   value-­‐adding   activities   we   can   simplify   the   chain,   find   new   solutions  or  combine  activities  to  e.g.  reduce  hand-­‐over  situations.  Improvement   initiative   is   driven   by   idea   “How   can   we   increase   the   customer   value   of   what   we   already  deliver?”   5     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  6. 6.   Root  cause  analysis  (5  why's,  CRT)   When  we  observe  issues  in  the  flow,  e.g.  waste,  we  tend  to  jump  into  solution.  But   these   issues   are   very   often   only   symptoms   with   deeper   root   cause.   To   identify   underlying   root   cause   we   use   simple   tool   called   5whys.   If   we   just   stick   to   symptoms   and   not   solve   the   root   cause,   it   can   become   unsolvable   with   much   bigger  impact.     We  ask  WHY?  –  in  several  steps.  The  steps  below  show  an  example  from  real  life.   The  root  cause  can,  in  many  cases,  be  difficult  to  map  and  can  sometimes  be  seen   as  being  completely  unrelated  to  the  original  problem.  In  the  specific  case  more   or  less  than  five  questions  may  be  asked.         Issue:  Men  discovered  his  car  in  garage  has  got  flat  tire   ⤷ Why?    Because  there  are  scattered  nails  over  the  floor   ⤷ Why?  Because  the  carton  box  with  the  nails  in  the  rack  is  wet   and  loses  its  nails   ⤷ Why?  Because  the  roof  is  broken   and  water  is  leaking  to  the  garage  onto  the  box     The  problem  often  needs  to  be  resolved  on  several  levels  at  the  same  time.  In  the   example   above,   nails   need   to   be   swept   and   cartoon   box   changed   in   short-­‐term   perspective.  In  the  long-­‐term,  roof  needs  to  be  fixed.       Another  possible  approach  to  map  root  causes  is  tool  from  EliYahu  M.  Goldratt’s   Theory   of   Constraints   called   Current   Reality   Tree.   Check   CRT   example   at   the   following  page.     Now  we  know  what  the  real  issue  is  and  we  can  start  to  solve  it  using  PDCA  cycle   (using  A3  form).   6     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  7. 7.                         7     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  8. 8. A3/A5   A5   is   a   form   of   improvement   proposal.   It   documents   the   problem   along   with   a   solution   proposal.   It   contains   information   about   the   name   of   the   person   who   came   up   with   the   proposal,   date   and   issue   area   to   make   the   subsequent   work   easier.   The   A5   will   be   then   hung   up   on   the   team   Lean   dashboard.   From   there   everyone  in  the  team  can  vote  on  the  proposal.       Approved   and   prioritized   A5   can   be   already   implemented   if   the   actions   are   simple  enough.  If  the  problem  is  more  complicated  or  costy  the  A5  is  developed   to   so   called   A3.   A3   is   more   elaborated   A5   following   Plan-­‐Do-­‐Check-­‐Act   approach.   It   has   planning   part   describing   perceived   and   measured   issues   together   with   expected  goals  to  achieve.  To  solve  the  right  problem,  it  contains  also  root  cause   analysis  (e.g.  5  whys  or  CRT).  Check  A3  example  at  following  page.   8     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  9. 9.   9     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation    
  10. 10. Efficient  meetings   In   a  meeting,   two   or   more   people   come   together   for   the   purpose   of   discussing   a  (usually)  predetermined  topic  such  as  business  or  community  event  planning,   often  in  a  formal  setting.     Important   vehicle   for   personal   contact   but   often   waste   unless   properly   planned  and  executed.  Coaching  is  in  fact  all  about  meeting  people.     Efficient  meeting  structure:   • Book  a  place  and  time  of  people   Before  the  meeting   • Send  agenda  upfront   o With  the  meeting  goal  and  what  is  the  expected  output   o With  action  points   o With  information  what  should  participants  prepare  for  the  meeting     • Open  the  meeting   Meeting  time   o Meeting  goals  overview   o Participants'  expectations   • Walk  through  existing  action  points   • Discussion   • Next  steps  &  follow-­‐ups   o Define  new  action  points  and  add  not  finished  old  ones   o Plan  follow-­‐up  meeting   • Give  feedback  against  goals  and  expectations  –  were  they  met?   • Give  feedback  to  meeting  efficiency  using  cards  and  discussion     • Send  meeting  minutes  to  the  meeting  participants   and  other  relevant  stakeholders   After  the  meeting   Hints:   • Ensure  2  persons:  meeting  leader  and  meeting  secretary  who  beams,  shares   materials  and  takes  meeting  minutes   • Make  meeting  time-­‐boxed   • Cut-­‐off  unnecessary  discussions  not  contributing  to  the  topic   • Use  (anonymous)  voting  for  deciding  about  options   • Visualize  everything  important  onto  whiteboard  or  sharing  tool   • If  meeting  does  not  go  well  suspend  it  and  perform  quick  retrospective   with  participants  to  improve  meeting  for  the  rest  of  the  time   10     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  11. 11.   Theory  of  constraints  –  resistance  to  change     In  order  to  change  something  in  a  way  we  do  things  we  need  to  understand  why   and   also   understand   the   benefits.   Let’s   assume   we   have   team   and   one   person   sees  the  problem  then  this  problem  most  likely  touches  whole  team.  The  problem   is  joint  problem  even  if  the  rest  of  the  team  do  not  see  it.  You  know  what  people   say:  “If  you  do  not  see  the  problem  then  you  are  part  of  it”  :-­‐)  It  often  happens  that   problem   identifier   does   not   know   how   to   present   problem   so   it   is   understandable   for   others.   Here   can   help   Eliyahu   M.   Goldratt’s   Theory   of   Constraints   and   its   Layers   of   resistance   to   change.   It   explains   why   we   humans   resist  to  changes:   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We  don’t  agree  about  the  extent  or  nature  of  the  problem.   We  don’t  agree  about  the  direction  or  completeness  of  the  solution.   We  can  see  additional  negative  outcomes.   We  can  see  real  obstacles.   We  doubt  the  collaboration  of  others.     So  to  successfully  overcome  objections  and  fear  of  change  consider  following   steps:   1. Visualize   the   problem   in   context   e.g.   as   described   above   using   Value   stream   mapping   and   analyze   problem   root   cause   so   that   everyone   sees   and  understands  the  problem  and  its  nature.   2. Brainstorm   together   solution   attacking   root   cause,   not   symptom,   so   everyone   understands   why   exactly   these   actions   shall   solve   the   problem.   This   way   all   the   people   will   take   the   same   direction   and   accept   the   solution.   3. Identify  and  visualize  potential  negative  outcomes  of  the  solution  as  risks   and  handle  them  as  “known  unknown”  problems.  Either  you  accept  them   or  you  plan  actions  to  mitigate  them.   4. Ensure   executive   support   for   the   change   from   the   leaders   so   that   if   any   obstacle  comes  it  will  be  taken  care  of.   5. Ensure   the   owner   of   the   action   and   executive   group   of   people   who   will   support   the   change   implementation.   Then   it   most   likely   not   happen   that   solver  ends  up  alone  with  its  solution.  Others  will  help  :-­‐)     Kaizen  workshop,  as  you  can  see  above  in  description,  already  counts  with  these   resistance  layers.   11     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  12. 12. Coach  manifest   Types  of  coaching   There  are  many  different  types  of  coaching  like  Life  coaching,  Sport  coaching,   Business  coaching,  Financial  coaching  and  many  more.  Remember  that  each   coaching  type  needs  slightly  different  approach.  But  one  thing  is  common  for  all   of  those  –  you  coach  people.  Thus  if  you  want  to  be  a  good  coach  you  must   continuously  improve  your  soft  skills.   We  mostly  focus  onto  IT  Business  coaching  where  we  coach  individuals  or   organizations  (let’s  call  them  coachee)  to  improve  effectiveness  of  their  business.   In  order  to  succeed  we  do  a  lot  of  stuff.  Let  us  conclude  it  into  following  coaching   hints.     Expertise   Pure  coaching  does  not  depend  on  how  much  a  coach  understands  the  subject.  It   is  more  about  keeping  coachee  focused  on  his  goals.  But  if  we  talk  about  Business   coaching  then  people  expect  from  you,  as  an  expert,  to  know  what  to  do  at  some   moments  of  chaos  and  confusion.  If  you  plan  to  mentor  and  teach  others  you   must  know  the  subject  very  well.     Professionalism   Coach  is  discrete,  always  willing  to  help,  listening  and  understanding  person  that   never  has  the  right  to  be  angry  or  even  think  bad  things  about  anyone.  Try  first   on  yourself  what  you  recommend  to  others  –  practise  what  you  preach  –  and  you   might  gain  the  trust  and  respect  of  people  you  coach.     Leadership   People  follow  leaders.  To  inspire  and  encourage  people  you  as  a  coach  need  to   mobilize  your  leadership  skills.  Especially  in  Business  coaching  you  might  be  the   first  one  who  see  the  light  at  the  end  of  the  tunnel  during  some  complex   transformation.  In  these  times  it  is  necessary  to  play  a  leader  role  to  calm  down   situation  and  encourage  coachees.     12     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  13. 13.   Executive  support   If  the  organization  feels  the  need  for  change  it  must  be  supported  by  its  leaders.   Without  this  support  all  activities  are  doomed.  First  –  people  unconsciously  copy   leader’s  behaviour  and  second  –  someone  has  to  finance  the  change.  Leaders   must  fully  understand  the  need  for  change  and  stand  behind  it.     Pull  concept   One  wise  man  once  said  “Remember  that  not  wanted  good  is  pure  evil”.  Coaching   does  not  have  sense  if  there  is  no  one  to  listen.  Pareto  principle  80:20  works  also   here;  coachee  must  be  willing  to  spend  much  more  time  on  learning  than  you  do   on  coaching.  Push  does  not  lead  to  sustainable  change  and  new  behaviour   adoption.     Visualization   Visualization  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  coach  tools.  To  show  the  problem,  to  agree   on  solution,  to  whatever  -­‐  it  boosts  communication  if  you  use  visual  tools  like   whiteboard,  dashboard  or  other  information  radiators.     Measurement  towards  goals   Coaching  is  about  helping  coachee  to  achieve  his/her  goals.  It  is  really  important  for   coach  and  coachee  to  evaluate  not  only  goal  achievement  but  also  a  progress.   Progress  visualization  enables  both  to  keep  focus  on  targets  and  continuously   evaluate  and  replan  planned  steps.     Humbleness   Coach  does  not  need  to  show  others  how  great  he/she  is.  Remember  that  coaching  is   not  about  you  coach  but  it  is  about  coached  people.  If  they  succeed  with  anything  it   is  mostly  their  credit  –  not  coach’s  one  :-­‐)   13     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  14. 14. Notes...   14     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  15. 15.   Notes...   15     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation  
  16. 16.   16     ©2011  Tieto  Corporation