2. Research is basic and it is paramount important in any
development at all times. Because of this, public and private
organizations are too concerned in assessing how they perform
in research. The desire concerned of these organizations could
be viewed in their organizational structure.
Research as a course, is a fundamental requirement for a
master’s degree or doctorate degree. Undergraduate students
view research as a difficult undertaking. This could be seen on
their reluctant to proceed to their research work. They usually
seek assistance from their research advisers and consultants
from the conceptualization process to the actual report writing.
3. Understandably, students will have initially difficult in
research conceptualization and in every stage of research
process due to lack of ‘’stock knowledge’’ on the choice of
research topic, inadequacy of research literature and studies
among others. These, however, should not be blamed on the
educational system and the teacher-student process.
4. Lesson 1. Meaning and Importance of Research
Research- is a key to progress. It is believed that there can be no
progress without research. Almost everything including
technologies enjoyed today is a product of research. In
government, in education, in trade and commerce, and in all types
and kinds of industries, research is vital and essential to
The importance of research, therefore, cannot be taken for granted.
Research is viewed as the power that leads to discover and answer
to the problems. And as one tries to find solution to problems, in
the process, problems again arise, thus making research a
5. The Meaning of Research
The word research is derived from the prefix re which means repeat
or redo, and the root word search which means to find or look for.
The following are the some of definitions of research as presented
as various authors:
• Is a systematic quest for the undiscovered truth ( Leedy, 1974);
• It is a search for an answer to unanswered questions;
• It is a systematic attempt to provide answer to questions (Tuckman,
• to search again, to take another more careful look, to find out more
6. Other Definition of Research
• It is a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation
of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among
•It is careful, critical, discipline inquiry varying in techniques and
methods according to the nature and condition of the problems
identified, directed towards the clarification or resolution of a
•Research is simply the systematic search for pertinent information
on a specific topic or problem (Aquino, 1986).
•Research is the process of gathering data or information to solve a
particular or specific problem in a scientific matter ( Manuel and
7. •Research is systematic study or investigation of something for the
purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher (Parel).
•Research is a systematic, organized search for knowledge or
answer to questions ( Mason and Bramble, 1989).
• It is systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing
information or data for some purpose (Mcmillan).
•It is a process of obtaining techniques, where the truth, accuracy,
validity, reliability and other criteria can be ascertained ( Genato,
et. al., 1993).
8. Purpose of Research
1. To discover new facts about known phenomena.
2. To find answers to the problems which are only partially
solved by the existing methods and information.
3. To discover previously unrecognized substances and
4. To provide basis for decision making in business,
industry, education, government, and other undertakings.
5. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.
6. To find answers to queries by means of scientific
9. 7. To acquire a deeper and better understanding about a
8. To verify or expand existing knowledge.
9. To improved the educational practices for raising
quality of school product.
10. To promote health and prolong life which are evident
in nutritional, pharmaceutical, and medical researches.
11. To make work, communication, and travel faster,
easier and more comfortable.
10. Lesson 2. Characteristic of Good Research
Characteristics of a good research
Systematic- It is systematic as there are interrelated steps or
procedures a researcher has to observe in solving a problem. In other
words, it follows an orderly and sequential procedure that leads to discover
the truth, solution of a problem or whatever is aimed to be discover.
Objective- It is not based on guesswork. This is because empirical data
have to be gathered by the researcher before making any conclusion or
proposing any solution to an identified difficulty or problem. In other
words, all findings and conclusions are logically based on the empirical
data and no effort is made to alter the result of research.
Empirical- All the procedures employed and the data gathered are
perceived in the same manner by all observers. Generalization are drawn
by the researcher upon hard evidence gathered from the information
collected from the real life experiences and observation.
11. Comprehensive- If the researcher is serious about the understanding
a phenomenon, he has to examine and analyze all its aspects or angles
before making a generalization or conclusion.
Critical- This means that procedures employed by the researcher must
withstand critical scrutiny by the other researchers. Data should be
analyzed critically so that there is no error in the interpretation.
Rigorous- Procedures to be followed ion solving a problem should be
relevant, appropriate, justified, and strictly observed.
Valid- Whenever a researcher formulates conclusions, there are based
on actual findings.
Verifiable- Other researchers can check on the correctness of its
results by replicating the study based on the methods and procedures
employed by the researchers.
12. Other Characteristics of Research
1. Research employs quantitative or statistical methods – Data
are transferred into numerical measures and are treated
statistically to determine their significance and usefulness.
2. Research is an original work – Except for historical research,
data are gathered from primary sources or first hand sources and
not from secondary sources.
3. Research is an accurate investigation – Every research must be
done accurately so that the findings will lead to the formulation
of scientific generalization.
13. 4. Research is a patient and unhurried activity to ensure
accuracy – Research that is hurriedly done or conducted
carelessly due to racing against time may lead to shaky
conclusions and generalizations.
5. Research requires an effort-making capacity – No research
can be conducted without the exertion of much effort. It involves
much work and time.
6. Research requires courage – The researcher oftentimes
undergoes hazards, discomforts, and the like. At times, The
researcher encounters public and social disapproval. Also,
disagreements with colleagues may rise.
14. Lesson 3. Types and Classification of Research and the
Types and Classifications of Research
There are different ways of classifying research. On the basis of
who undertakes research , research can either be academic research
or a research project. Academic research is one conducted by an
individual in fulfilling the requirements for the conferment of an
academic title or degree. Baby theses mater these feasibility studies
and doctoral dissertation fall under this type of research. In the other
hand, a research project is a type is a type of research undertaken by
an individual or group of individual as part of their professional
work or assignments.
15. When methodology or research design is used as a basis for
categorizing research, Research can take any of ff. types
1. Descriptive research- This type of research endeavors to describe
systematically, factually, accurately and objectively as situation, problem or
phenomenon. It seeks to describe “what is’’ .
2. Correlation or Associational Research – In this type of research, the
investigator tries to probe the significance of relationship between two or more
factors or characteristics.
3. Explanatory Research – In this type of inquiry the researcher seeks to
clarify how and why a relationship exist between two or more aspect of
situation or a phenomenon. Questions like why jobs stress contributes to burn
out or why low morale can lead to low productivity among the employees or
problems which can be investigated systematically through the explanatory
16. 4. Exploratory Research – This kind of study is undertaken when
the investigator is after proving or exploring areas where little is
known about the research problem. Feasibility and pilot studies
fall under this type of research
5. Experimental Research - In this type of research, the researcher
probes in to the cost of an effect the exposing one or more
experimental groups to one or more treatments and condition
17. 6. Ex-Post facto/Casual comparative research – In this type of
research when the investigator delves on analyzing the possible
effect of a factor which cannot be manipulated and controlled.
7. Historical Research – The researcher attempt to reconstruct the
past objectively and accurately or to explain an incident that
happened in the past with the used of the data taken from the past.
8. Ethnographic Research – This type of research is done when
the researcher is concerns with explaining or describing a
phenomenon holistically with the use of multiple data connection
18. The Research Process
1. Idea Generating Phase- research begins with an idea in
which the researcher has interests. It is in this face wherein the
researcher has to identified topics that interests him most.
2. Problem-Definition Phase – As the ideas generated in the
first phase are very general or vague the researcher has to
redefined them. This is the problem definition phase. This is
particular steps involved the following activities: identification
and definition of the variables to be studied; development of
theoretical and conceptual framework of the study.
3. Procedure-Design Phase- after identifying the problems and
hypotheses; the researcher has to decide on the methods and
procedures he will use in then collection and analysis of data.
19. 4. Data-collection Phase- after preparing the research
plan, the researcher has to proceed gathering data from
the subject of the data of the study.
5. Data-analysis Phase- in this particular phase, the
researcher analyses the collected data from the
previous step, based on his data analysis plan.
Appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques and
procedures are then applied for the data that have been
recorded, coded and tabulated.
20. 6. Interpretation Phase- having analyze the data, the
researcher continues to make sense out of them by
interpreting the results in terms of how they aid in
responding to the research problem pose at the beginning of
the study and how the answer contributes to knowledge in
7. Communication Phase- after completing the data
analysis and interpretation phase, the researcher has to
prepare a written or oral report of the study conducted,
either for publication or presentation who colleagues or a
panel of experts. This report has to include a description of
all the above on the research process.