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The narrative paradigm

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jessica asuncion

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The narrative paradigm

  1. 1. The Narrative Paradigm Based on the research of Walter Fisher
  2. 2. Narrative Paradigm <ul><li>It promotes the belief that humans are storytellers and that values, emotions, and aesthetic considerations ground our beliefs and behaviors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. In other words, we are more persuaded by a good story than by a good argument .
  4. 4. Paradigm <ul><li>Has a broader concept than a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Fisher states that his use of this term refers to an effort to formalize and direct our understanding of the experience of all human communication. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Paradigm Shift <ul><li>A significant change in the way most people see the world and its meanings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rational World Paradigm <ul><li>A system of logic employed by many researchers and professionals . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assumptions Of The Narrative Paradigm <ul><li>Humans are naturally storytellers. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions about a story’s worth are based on “good reasons.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Good reasons are determined by history, biography, culture, and character. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality is based on people’s judgments of a story’s consistency and truthfulness. </li></ul><ul><li>We experience the world as filled with stories, and we must choose among them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Contrast Between Narrative And Rational World Paradigm <ul><li>Humans are storytellers. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are rational beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making and communication are based on “good reasons.” </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making is based on arguments. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Good reasons are determined by matters of history, biography, culture, and character. </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments adhere to specific criteria for soundness and logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality is based in people’s awareness of how internally consistent and truthful to lived experience stories appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality is based in the quality of knowledge and formal reasoning processes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The world is experienced by people as a set of stories from which to choose among. As we choose, we live life in a process of continual re-creation. </li></ul><ul><li>The world can be reduced to a series of logical relationships that are uncovered through reasoning. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Key Concepts In The Narrative Approach <ul><li>Narration. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative rationality (which includes coherence or probability and fidelity). </li></ul><ul><li>Logic of good reasons. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Narration <ul><li>In Fisher’s perspective, narration includes any verbal or nonverbal account with a sequence of events to which listeners assign a meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>This definition implies the need for a storyteller and a listener . </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>All communication is narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Fisher argues that narrative is not a specific genre , but rather it is a mode of social influence . </li></ul><ul><li>It is Fisher’s contention that all life is composed of stories or narratives. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Narrative Rationality <ul><li>It provides us with a means for judging narratives that is quite different from the traditional methods found in the rational world paradigm. </li></ul><ul><li>It operates on the basis of two different principles: coherence and fidelity . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Coherence <ul><li>It refers to the internal consistency of a narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the standard of sense making applied to a given narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>It is often measured by the organizational and structural elements of a narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on 3 specific types of consistency: structural coherence , material coherence , and characterological coherence . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Structural Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>A type of coherence referring to the flow of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Material Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>A type of coherence referring to the congruence between one story and other related stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterological Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>A type of coherence referring to the believability of the characters in the story. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fidelity <ul><li>It is a principle of narrative rationality judging credibility of a story. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the truthfulness or reliability of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Stories with fidelity ring true to a listener. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Logic Of Good Reasons <ul><li>A set of values for accepting a story as true and worthy of acceptance; provides a method for assessing fidelity. </li></ul><ul><li>This logic is a process consisting of 2 series of five questions that the listener asks about the narrative. </li></ul>
  20. 20. First 5 Questions: <ul><li>Are the statements that claim to be factual in the narrative really factual? </li></ul><ul><li>Have any relevant facts been omitted from the narrative or distorted in its telling? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the patterns of reasoning that exist in the narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>How relevant are the arguments in the story to any decision the listener may make? </li></ul><ul><li>How well does the narrative address the important and significant issues of this case? </li></ul>
  21. 21. 5 Questions That Follows: <ul><li>What are the implicit and explicit values contained in the narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the values appropriate to the decision that is relevant to the narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the effects of adhering to the values embedded in the narrative? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the values confirmed or validated in lived experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the values of the narrative the basis for ideal human conduct? </li></ul>
  22. 22. JEX ASUNCION