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ALUMINIUM
By- Vaishnavi Khandelwal
Shrikant Dethe
Contents:
1. Part I :
a. Introduction
b. How It All Started?
c. Properties
d. Production Processes
e. Lifecycle
f. Applica...
Introduction
• Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group
• Symbol Al and atomic number 13.
• Silvery-white, soft,...
How It All Started?
• It can easily binds with other elements, so its pure form does not occur in nature.
This is the reas...
Properties:
5
Part I:
Production Process:
Aluminum is produced in three stages as follows:
1. Mining: In first stage the bauxite ore is mined an...
7
Part I:
Applications:
Major industries were aluminium is used:
• Transportation
• Packaging
• Consumer Goods
• Construction
• Elec...
9
Part I:
Primary and secondary aluminium consumption for
industries, 2013
10
Part I:
Aluminium Grades China, ISO(International Standard), USA,
Germany, Britain, France
11
Part I:
Aluminium Grades
End Use Potential Aluminum Grades
Aircraft (Structure/Tube) 2014 2024 5052 6061 7075
Architectural 3003 6...
Global aluminium market analysis:
Leading producers- Country
13
Part II: Market Analysis
Leading
Aluminium
Manufacturing
Companies
14
Part II: Market Analysis
Aluminium Production : World Vs China
15
Part II: Market Analysis
Leading Consumers- Country
16
Part II: Market Analysis
There are two main macro drivers behind Aluminium demand
growth:
17
Part II: Market Analysis
Aluminium use intensity is growing around the world
18
Part II: Market Analysis
Supply-Demand Balance
19
Part II: Market Analysis
• The global aluminium market is struggling with an oversupply crisis. Skyrocketing aluminium output
growth, predominantly...
Pricing of Primary Aluminium
The major trading centers of aluminium in the world
are
1. London Metal Exchange (LME)
2. Tok...
Overproduction
22
Part II: Market Analysis
• The persistent and dramatic overproduction of aluminum in China is distorting the
market and hurting global producers.
•...
Comparison
PROPERTY STEEL / STAINLESS STEEL ALUMINIUM
1 Strength Strong Weak but some alloys are stronger than
steel
2 Wei...
Comparison (cont.)
PROPERTY STEEL / STAINLESS STEEL ALUMINIUM
6 Thermal Conductivity Lower(50.2 W/m-K) Higher(205 W/m-K)
7...
Shift from Steel to Aluminium underway in
the Automobile Industry
26
Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
Aluminium weight advantage
27
Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
Aluminium Hazards and drawbacks
• Workers who breathe aluminium containing dusts or aluminium fumes face
lung problems suc...
Limitations
• High cost compared to Steel.
• Limited fatigue strength and creep resistance at elevated
temperature.
• High...
Recent Developments
• Competitors(novel steel, Mg, Ti, glass reinforced plastics)
• Age-hardening(Al-Mg-Si 6xx series, for...
Future aspects
Aluminium industry- New challenges
• Cleaner & sustainable means of transportation
• Customers demand of im...
Thank You
32
Bibliography
http://www.aluminiumleader.com/production/how_aluminium_is_produced/
http://www.explainthatstuff.com/aluminum...
Bibliography
http://www.rusal.ru/en/aluminium/key_markets/
https://www.equitymaster.com/research-it/sector-info/aluminium/...
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Aluminium

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Aluminium, applications, grades and Market Study.

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Aluminium

  1. 1. ALUMINIUM By- Vaishnavi Khandelwal Shrikant Dethe
  2. 2. Contents: 1. Part I : a. Introduction b. How It All Started? c. Properties d. Production Processes e. Lifecycle f. Applications g. Grades 2. Part II : Market Analysis a. Production ● Leading producers: Countries ● Leading Producers: Companies ● World VS China b. Consumers c. Reason for Demand d. Predicted Consumption e. Supply/ Demand Balance f. Pricing of Aluminium g. Overproduction 3. Part III : Comparison Al VS Steel a. Comparison b. Shift from Steel to Al c. Aluminium Weight Advantage 4. Part IV: a. Hazards and Disadvantages b. Limitations c. Recent Developments d. Future Aspects
  3. 3. Introduction • Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group • Symbol Al and atomic number 13. • Silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. • Third most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen and silicon) and most abundant metal. • Makes up about 8% of the crust by mass • Highly chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited • Found in combined form in over 270 different minerals. • Chief ore is bauxite. 3 Part I:
  4. 4. How It All Started? • It can easily binds with other elements, so its pure form does not occur in nature. This is the reason that people learned about it relatively recently. • Discovery of aluminium was made possible when scientists were able to use electricity to break down chemical compounds into their elements. • In the 19 century the Danish physicist Christian Oersted used electrolysis to obtain aluminium. • Electrolysis or electrolytic reduction is the process that is used to produce aluminium today as well. 4 Part I:
  5. 5. Properties: 5 Part I:
  6. 6. Production Process: Aluminum is produced in three stages as follows: 1. Mining: In first stage the bauxite ore is mined and cleaned. 2. Refining: In the second stage,alumina is refined from the ore using Bayer’s process 3. Smelting: The last and final stage in aluminum production is smelting the alumina into aluminum. 6 Part I:
  7. 7. 7 Part I:
  8. 8. Applications: Major industries were aluminium is used: • Transportation • Packaging • Consumer Goods • Construction • Electrical Engineering 8 Part I:
  9. 9. 9 Part I:
  10. 10. Primary and secondary aluminium consumption for industries, 2013 10 Part I:
  11. 11. Aluminium Grades China, ISO(International Standard), USA, Germany, Britain, France 11 Part I:
  12. 12. Aluminium Grades End Use Potential Aluminum Grades Aircraft (Structure/Tube) 2014 2024 5052 6061 7075 Architectural 3003 6061 6063 Automotive Parts 2014 2024 Building Products 6061 6063 Boat Building 5052 6061 Chemical Equipment 1100 6061 Cooking Utensils 3003 5052 Drawn and Spun parts 1100 3003 Electrical 6061 6063 Fasteners & Fittings 2024 6061 General Fabrication 1100 3003 5052 6061 Machined Parts 2011 2014 Marine Applications 5052 6061 6063 Piping 6061 6063 Pressure Vessels 3003 5052 Recreation Equipment 6061 6063 Screw Machine Products 2011 2024 Sheet Metal Work 1100 3003 5052 6061 Storage Tanks 3003 6061 6063 Structural Applications 2024 6061 7075 Trucks Frames & Trailers 2024 5052 6061 6063 (American Standard) 12 Part I:
  13. 13. Global aluminium market analysis: Leading producers- Country 13 Part II: Market Analysis
  14. 14. Leading Aluminium Manufacturing Companies 14 Part II: Market Analysis
  15. 15. Aluminium Production : World Vs China 15 Part II: Market Analysis
  16. 16. Leading Consumers- Country 16 Part II: Market Analysis
  17. 17. There are two main macro drivers behind Aluminium demand growth: 17 Part II: Market Analysis
  18. 18. Aluminium use intensity is growing around the world 18 Part II: Market Analysis
  19. 19. Supply-Demand Balance 19 Part II: Market Analysis
  20. 20. • The global aluminium market is struggling with an oversupply crisis. Skyrocketing aluminium output growth, predominantly in China, has led to a global crisis and market overheating. • The World Bureau of Metal Statistics estimated aluminium overproduction in January and February 2013 at 317,100 tonnes, despite a fairly rapid increase in demand by 472,000 to 7.6 million tonnes over the same period. • An aluminium overproduction crisis is now impacting the prices negatively. Around 25% of the global aluminium capacity is losing money, which is forcing producers to slash output and shut down inefficient capacity • Despite a reduction in prices caused by a crisis in overproduction, the outlook for 2013 remains positive. The global consumption has increased by 6% in 2013 to 50 million tonnes. • The constant upward trend is accounted for by the fact that aluminium is the metal of progress. State-of-the-art developments in the motor industry, construction, electric engineering, aircraft industry and creation of new gadgets all involve the application of aluminium. 20 Part II: Market Analysis Supply-Demand Balance (cont.)
  21. 21. Pricing of Primary Aluminium The major trading centers of aluminium in the world are 1. London Metal Exchange (LME) 2. Tokyo Commodity Exchange (TOCOM) 3. Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) 4. New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) In India, aluminium is also traded at various commodity exchanges namely Multi Commodity Exchange of India and National Multi Commodity Exchange of India 21 Part II: Market Analysis
  22. 22. Overproduction 22 Part II: Market Analysis
  23. 23. • The persistent and dramatic overproduction of aluminum in China is distorting the market and hurting global producers. • In 2000, China produced only about 11% of the world’s primary aluminum. Now, it produces more than half. • This production capacity resulted from government policies rather than process improvements or lower input costs. Also by subsidizing energy and its support for overproduction squeezes the profit of global aluminium firms. • In fact, of the 50 highest-cost aluminum smelters in the world, 37 are located in China. Also the average operating costs exceeds that of chinese smelters. • China’s government has been subsidizing aluminum smelters through direct grants, interest free loans and other “incentive” mechanisms. 23 Part II: Market Analysis Overproduction (cont.)
  24. 24. Comparison PROPERTY STEEL / STAINLESS STEEL ALUMINIUM 1 Strength Strong Weak but some alloys are stronger than steel 2 Weight Heavy Light 3 Color Silver It ranges from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. 4 Stiffness Less stiffer compared to aluminum More stiffer 5 Corrosion Highly corrosive Less corrosive 24 Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
  25. 25. Comparison (cont.) PROPERTY STEEL / STAINLESS STEEL ALUMINIUM 6 Thermal Conductivity Lower(50.2 W/m-K) Higher(205 W/m-K) 7 Cost Carbon and mild steel cheaper than aluminium Cheaper than stainless steel 8 Workability Harder and difficult to work with Soft and easier to cut 9 Effect on foods Stainless steel cookware is low in cost and can be used at high heat, it is less reactive Due to softness it is reactive, coated aluminium can be used Applications Roads, railways, other infrastructure, appliances, buildings, transportation, aerospace, etc Transportation, Packaging, Construction, utensils, electric transmission lines, paint, etc 25 Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
  26. 26. Shift from Steel to Aluminium underway in the Automobile Industry 26 Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
  27. 27. Aluminium weight advantage 27 Part III: Comparison Al VS Steel
  28. 28. Aluminium Hazards and drawbacks • Workers who breathe aluminium containing dusts or aluminium fumes face lung problems such as coughing. Also affecting their nervous system. Disadvantages • Far more expensive that steel. • Limited to certain geometric features using economical processes. • Abrasive to tooling (aluminum oxide is very abrasive). • Difficult to weld. • Prone to severe spring back 28 Part IV:
  29. 29. Limitations • High cost compared to Steel. • Limited fatigue strength and creep resistance at elevated temperature. • High shrinkage (shrinkage porosity) • High hydrogen solubility • Susceptibility to hot cracking 29 Part IV:
  30. 30. Recent Developments • Competitors(novel steel, Mg, Ti, glass reinforced plastics) • Age-hardening(Al-Mg-Si 6xx series, for more strength and good formability) • Non-heat treatable Al-Mg-Mn alloys(for good surface appearance, thermal stability, corrosion resistance) • Castings(engine blocks, cylinder heads, special chassis parts).... High requirement of strength and durability • Extrusions 30 Part IV:
  31. 31. Future aspects Aluminium industry- New challenges • Cleaner & sustainable means of transportation • Customers demand of improved safety, comfort …... Researchers all over the world are continuing to develop new Al based alloy, composite and nano-composites to further improve its properties 31 Part IV:
  32. 32. Thank You 32
  33. 33. Bibliography http://www.aluminiumleader.com/production/how_aluminium_is_produced/ http://www.explainthatstuff.com/aluminum.html http://www.aalco.co.uk/datasheets/Aluminium-Alloy_Introduction-to-Aluminium-and-its-alloys_9.ashx https://www.metalsupermarkets.com/what-aluminum-grade-should-i-use/ http://www.sourcing-cn.com/aluminum/aluminummaterials.html http://worldknowing.com/top-10-aluminum-producing-countries/ http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/top-aluminum-producing-nations-in-the-world.html https://www.statista.com/statistics/280920/largest-aluminum-companies-worldwide/ http://slideplayer.com/slide/10950139/ http://www.alures-mining.com/s/Aluminium.asp http://business.mapsofindia.com/aluminium/ http://www.financialexpress.com/market/commodities/aluminium-firms-seek-increase-in-import-duty/102446/ http://www.metalex.co.uk/top-british-aluminium-supplier-explains-aluminium-grades/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/williampentland/2016/03/29/lessons-from-the-aluminum-industry-the-hidden-cost-of-chinas-cheap- solar/#7f8d66465e2a http://www.arabal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Goran-Djukanovi-Aluminium-Market-Analyst-_-Consultant-%E2%80%93- %E2%80%98Aluminium-versus-Steel%E2%80%99.pdf http://www.ysxbcn.com/down/2014/07_en/01-p1995.pdf https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=1076&tid=34 http://www.hydro.com/pagefiles/147642122/05%20AMH%20- %20Recent%20trends%20in%20aluminium%20research%20An%20overview%20.pdf 33
  34. 34. Bibliography http://www.rusal.ru/en/aluminium/key_markets/ https://www.equitymaster.com/research-it/sector-info/aluminium/Aluminium-Sector-Analysis-Report.asp http://metalworld.co.in/analysis0709.pdf http://hongqiaochina.com/en/index.aspx https://www.google.co.in/search?biw=1517&bih=708&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Volume+of+production+alumina+in+the+world+%28mt%29&oq=Volume +of+production+alumina+in+the+world+%28mt%29&gs_l=img.3...3052919.3060702.0.3061045.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1c.1.64.img..0.0.0.V 2Mijw1W3eI#imgrc=-5IU6Mdz21nyUM%3A http://campus.hesge.ch/commodity_trading/?p=10881 http://www.world-aluminium.org/statistics/alumina-production/ http://www.aluminum.org/china-trade http://aluminum.org/news/aluminum-demand-grows-6th-consecutive-year-2009 http://www.slideshare.net/rahulranjan56027/aluminium-industry-35694352 http://business.mapsofindia.com/aluminium/ http://www.slideshare.net/ShushmulMaheshwari/global-aluminium-industry-feb14-36491935 https://www.scribd.com/doc/19149792/Indian-Aluminium-Industry http://marketrealist.com/2014/12/factors-investors-watch-gold-price-direction/ 34

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