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PathologyCell Injury1. What are the ultrastructural changes that occur in cell death?12. What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?23. What is heterolysis?34. What are the 4 histological sub-types of necrosis?4Acute/Chronic Inﬂammation1. Deﬁne inﬂammation52. In what 2 main ways would injured tissue be ﬁxed?63. What are the main type of cell that migrate and adhere to inﬂamed tissue?74. What is exudate, transudate and pus?85. What are the 4 cardinal signs of inﬂammation?91 ATP levels fall (failure of Na/K ATPase pump), ribosomal dissociation (no protein synthesis), mitochondrialvacuolation, injury to lysosomes so enzymes escape, formation of myelin ﬁgures.2 Necrosis = the changes that follow cell death in a living organism, can be caused by the cells ondegradative enzymes or enzymes released by white cells. Apoptosis is programmed cell death manifest byDNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, the function of which is the deletion/death of cells in normalbody function (e.g. immune function, tissue growth and osteogenesis).3 When white cell enzymes degrade a dead cell within a living organism4 Coagulative necrosis (e.g. myocardial infarct), liquefactive necrosis (transformation of tissue into liquid, e.gcerebral infarct), Caseous necrosis (cheese like appearance e.g. TB), Fat necrosis = acute pancreatitis5 Reaction of vascularised living tissue to local injury, in higher animals it is the reaction of the blood vesselsleading to accumulation of ﬂuid and cells that characterize the process.6 Regeneration of parenchymal cells (ground tissue/bulk) or by ﬁbroblastic/glial scar tissue7 White blood cells, predominantly neutrophils8 Exudate = an inﬂammatory extravascular ﬂuid that has a high protein concentration, Transudate = an ultra-ﬁltrate of low protein concentration (mostly albumin), Pus = rich in white blood cells and parenchymal celldebris.9 Rubor (redness), Tumour (swelling), Calor (heat), Dolor (pain)
6. What is the function of ‘stasis’?107. What are the main chemotactic agents for neutrophils?118. What are the hallmarks of chronic inﬂammation?129. What is a granuloma?13Healing/Repair1. What is the difference between regeneration and scarring?142. What is the difference between liable cells, stable cells and permanent cells?153. What is the main structural component required for regeneration of cells?164. What is granulation tissue?175. List 6 factors that impede healing186. What is the difference between a sprain and a strain?19The Biology of Cancer10 Stasis = slowing of the circulation because of increased permeability of the microvasculature, caused bytransient vasoconstriction of arterioles and vasodilation of local veins.11 Bacterial products, components of the complement system (esp. c5a), products of the lipoxygenasepathway of arachidonic acid (particularly B4)12 Persistent infection and toxins, autoimmune disease, prolonged presence of elevated lymphocytes andmacrophages, proliferation of blood vessels and connective tissue.13 Tiny collection of macrophages formed when the immune system attempts to wall off/trap foreignsubstances.14 Regeneration = replacement by parenchymal cells of the same type, Scarring = replacement by ﬁbrousconnective or glial tissue15 Liable cells = constantly replaced surface epithelia & blood cells, Stable cells = rarely replaced liver,kidney, pancreas, Permanent cells = never replaced neurones and cardiac muscle16 Intact basement membrane (otherwise scar tissue will result)17 Proliferation of new small blood vessels, deposition of extracellular matrix and maturation of ﬁbrous tissue/remodeling. Granulation tissue sits next to ﬁbrous scar tissue.18 Poor nutrition (vit C deﬁciency), glucocorticoids, infection, mechanical factors (e.g. pressure), inadequateblood supply, foreign bodies (sutures etc.)19 Sprain = damaged ligament, pain resulting from micro-bleeds and edema. Strains are the result of physicalstretching of muscle in opposite directions, where the muscle becomes torn or at worst separated fromtendon
1. What is carcinogenesis?202. What factors can inhibit the cell cycle between G1 and S phase?213. What are the 3 ways a tumour can be classiﬁed?224. What are the visual/histological differences between benign and malignant tumors?235. What 2 types of tumour can occur in squamous (ﬂat) cells?246. What 2 types of tumour can occur in glands?257. What is the name for a malignant colorectal polyp?268. What is familial adenomatous polyposis?279. What are the risk factors for cervical carcinoma?2810.What is the pathological difference between benign and malignant tumour?2911.Why do cancers kill?30Introduction to Embryology20 Process of converting normal cells into cancer cells and permanent cumulative genetic alterations21 p53, pRb22 Tissue of origin (e.g. breast), cell of origin (histogenic), benign or malignant (behaviour)23 Benign (small, well demarcated, slow growing, noninvasive, non-metastatic, well differentiated. Malignant= large, poorly demarcated, rapidly growing with haemorrage and necrosis, locally invasive, metastatic andpoorly differentiated edges.24 Papilloma (benign skin tumour), squamous cell carcinoma25 Adenoma (benign), adenocarcinoma26 Colorectal adenocarcinoma27 An inherited condition where numerous polyps form in the large intestine, they may progress to coloncancer if untreated28 Sexually transmitted disease depending on number of partners and age of ﬁrst intercourse.29 Malignant tumours grow faster and do not have a capsule, they invade local organs, lymphatics and veins30 Obstruct critical tubes, destroy critical tissues, occupy space in body and limit adjacent organs, reduceimmune response to infections.
1. What is cleavage in relation to embryology?312. What is the blastodisc?323. What is gastrulation?334. What are the three germ layers and the organs they give rise to?345. What is neurulation?356. What are somites?367. What is induction with reference to embryology?378. What is paracrine signaling?389. What is Sonic Hedgehog?3910.What are anencephaly, craniorachischisis and spina biﬁda?4011.What is cyclopamine?4131 Follows immediately after fertilization. Series of rapid cell divisions without growth that divides the embreyointo numerous small cells. Called a blastocyst.32 Formed by the rearrangement of the two inner layers of cells, creates 2 layers of cells called the epiblast(above) and the hypoblast (underneath)33 The process through which cells sort out to generate the body plan, this involves the inward movement ofcells from the epiblast towards the central ʻprimitive streakʼ.34 Endoderm = gut, liver, lungs, Mesoderm = muscle, heart, skeleton, kidneys, blood, Ectoderm = skin,nervous system35 The formation of the neural tube, starts anteriorly ceases posteriorly36 Paired blocks of mesoderm that give rise to vertebral column, skeletal muscle, cartilage, tendons,endothelium.37 Where one tissue directs the development of another neighboring tissue38 Signaling over a short distance (a number of cell diameters)39 diffuses from midline structures to generate different types of neurons at different positions (failure leads todeletion of areas of the body from development/birth defects40 Anencephaly = failure of the neural tube to close, resulting in an absence of an area of the brain, skull andscalp. Craniorachischisis = Fissure of the cranium and vertebral column. Spina Biﬁda = incomplete closing ofthe embryonic neural tube (some vertebrae remain unfused and open), can protrude from opening in thebones.41 A chemical which inhibits SHH and therefore can cause cyclopia in developing embreyos