O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Kyoto Email 4.9.01

824 visualizações

Publicada em

Kyoto Protocol
Email 4.9.01

  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

  • Seja a primeira pessoa a gostar disto

Kyoto Email 4.9.01

  1. 1. * a' .aiwll;: ~~~~~~~~~;c(Pn~~~NO.175 P.2/10 _1491kr~ Krieger.Jmckie( epamall~eeptgov < ~~O" ~04/0912001 05:25 4 PM Record Type: Record To: John M. BridgelandI0OPD/EO cc: Melissa MCKuIIhItOPD/EOP GibsonV%aolcom..John BeaieWrpA~a-gov, John L Howard Jr.ICEQ/Eop Subject- Draft Materials an Climate C ange John - I am forwarding to you draft Taterlels on clilmate change. Tom Gibson and John Beale have revie ad these do umnts. They include: -a 2-page summary of the findingo Dr. Jame Hansen --a 2-page summery of the positi svews of ley domestic stakeholders a summary of congressional ac ity. There awe two files; the first -- ('Congressional ActiviW') is a sum ayof activity sin the 107th Congress; the second (Congressional Activity !")ncludes a iiummary of some agriculture-related climate bills frot the I105th Congress that haven't (to the best of our knowledge) been in, oduced in the 107th (yet) - we can reconcile the two documents if ike -- just let 4ne know. We have also you shared this information with the Ste Department. (See attached file: Hansen~doc) (See attached file: staketicldero4oa.wpd) (See atte ed file: Congi t eslonal Actvitymwpd) (S~ee attached file: Congressional AdUvlty 2.wpd) P.S. We sent this afternoon appro; 15 various" urre maps" of ghg emissions to Richard Russell at OS P. I-Hasn-o I saeh er49.p It Con:ress anal Activity.wpd Cnrssonal Activity 2wpI
  2. 2. N. 7 P.3/1e( JUSEN0O.0175:2P Snmmay of Dr. James Hansen's Findings of the amount of energy * Climate and temperature ii earth are dtenniined by the balance various processes- through coming in from the sun a d the amioulevn the planet over time, the balance fA Lmates, adisreuts in a natural variation in climate and temperature- to shift are said to "force" a • Events or processes that ;ause this overl energy balance conditions. A change change in climate - and iscan be towrswarmer or cooler represents a "positive" that causes more energy accumulat thnleaves the earth forcing, or Warfltflg in the sun's brightness, which * Examples of such climat "fattring" incud:1) a change volcanic emuption, which can could increase of decrea. the energy recing earth 2) a reflect sunlight back blanket the g-lobe with sr all "white" particles - these particles and cooler surface, into space, shifting the bh lance to less energy at the earth which impedes the process conditions - a "negative 'orcing"; 3) an increase in C02, wanner conditions. by which the earth cool sitself, leading to a "forcing' towards * There can be a delay of) ars to decades between a "forcing" event and an observed change in climate. This is because itk~akcs a long time to change the temperature of rie * the oceans, During the l ay, the earth is warming, but there is mruch less apparent in the air temperature we encounter, The ReadvILIRLmagt2 aCO VS. ojct er Greenhou'se Gases-and-Particles C~z earth's energy balanice (climate * Hansen presents estimatt of the relative effect on the important substance for forcing) of avariety ofs stances. Wlhile the single most gases (methane, CFC's, warming is C02, the corme effectjof the other greenhouse tropospheric ozone, and rosoxid is lager than CO 2. is not a greenhouse gas, but a The second most impom t warming rantributor, however, warmilag the black carbon particles (st ot). Black carbon absorbs sunlight. atmosphere. opposite effect, that is they cool • Other fine particles, nota ly sulfates in nitrates, have the cooling ("negative forcing") the earth by reflecting S aighit back inito space. The net by these substances is un er~in, but substantial. diating heat from the earth's surface buck inte The main such proces for coolit the earth is s ral bih int sp ark ciiih reduces Urn amount of men space. Cloudts and water bodiesa tually reflect energy that stays with the ppanet-
  3. 3. ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~NO. 175 F-.47111 3:28PM 4 L~NSEpRp.2001W: * -- climate between 1950 *Hansen sums up the ef falo hs substances in mo~dclikg these calculations, on and 2000. The results consistent with obscrattioflS. Based least another half degree C temperature Hansen estimates that w cnexpectat and particles. increase from current Io ng of gass Pllt Pol n iaim: Nc o Limton th eadCoeiiflI (no new climate controls) as * Hansen forecasts the res ts of a "buse5 as usual' scenario 2050 and "several degrees" by 2100. resulting itt an additiona increase of I s C by increase by * Healsoexainesan "l a". senaro'that would cut the ternperaturl 4 The comPonnso hs taeyae 2050 in half compared tc business as snal. araesfor the next Sayears. This Would to recent 3Limit the gro tiz in COz en lissions but would not fxeze or roll back require actiVC MeaUr S. e.g. cntPconservationl, C0z to e.g, 1990 Iree today are fully acbieved within Reduce meti ie. Reductins in methane taken Holding methae at 1990 levels offers about a decade, imuch auicker ta far co. to that level CO- thesa3mCbenefits in250 as holdin reduction aepsible for methane, AsHnen notes, bstantial cost-effectivC save coal i-ines. Many of these technologies for sources such as p celime leaks and energy and inlcrease oductivity. scale, ozone Stop growth i trpoph ozone and black carbon. On a global > pre~industrial times. Therefote, reductions levels arc about 2 to times hihrthan (NO40,02 al scale reductions of nitrogen oxides on this scale appear fe sible. 014 strategies. methane and other hy rocarbon woletemain ete combustion of fossil fuels, -- The principal sow es of blac cabnaejnosc as wildfires and a~gricultuin 'nas"burning such as diesels and ca] and "b sourcesaX 1 and poorly contrlol world are reducing ozone and -- Current and plar d progrmsin the developed countre wud greatly improvehua particles. Similar an ns by deelopingi The climate benefits are partially offset by health locally and slo climate change. reductions. pcrticle the reduced cooling IIn "whitcP overncaein and air pollution controls would be The irmediate benefits( the methne at some point in the future, time by the continued p vi in CO Hansen stresses that 2 the growth in CO will bhc to be rvsed. 2 is aet itself a rewbnduse gass, Ozone is ELgrecnboe gaS. he O crzed under air pollution prografIs
  4. 4. lNU. 1i' .ti JUN SP.2.201,:L3:2S8FM Vie of Key Domstc stakeholders Dus~inesS and ~IudustrY inl skeptical of agriculture and forestry optionis * Agriulture- Thefrarm Iurean, initially the Kyoto Protocol, is no supportive hrcarbon scquestraitiacpoet i epDCt interest from the farm co uiy the Kyoto Protocol, Ford, GM, and DaimlerClIXysler * Automotive - While op sad to or 2004 announced produe nTln hybrid gas and electric vehiclecs in 2003 Io have auto such vehicles). All three major U.S. (H4onda and Toyota have Iedpruced SUVs by at least nraCthe fuel economy of their manufactuirers have also logdt hAmrcnCeiaCocl 25% by 2005.Prtcl mrcnCeia oni * Chemical - While app e oteKooPoooth improve energy efficiency and to supports voluntary progr snacisbymembers reduce greenhouse gas ioS owned h largest association of shareholder Utilities - The Edison lectrie nttue gae in Climate Challenge, a voluntary * electric pwromaleis actively] emnissions. FMt has opposed the partnerhpwt O oreduction ogrehuse gas developing amt h US economy and excludes Kyoto Protocol because would do proponent of flexibility mechanismns. countries - but has also cen a laIn in EPA's voluntary programs such as * Over 7,000 organizato is are parti, patling Energy Star. Shell - have D aimlierChrysler, B? Amoco, Sunoco, * Several major corporati s - Ford, to international 61toalitlofl, a lobbying Soup opposed withdrawn from the Gbio al Climnate organizations (e-g., the Pew Center on actionon climat~echange Somnehave joined advocate Council for Sustainable Energy) that Global Climate Change~ d the Businless change.I comprebemsive policies t iaddress climate goals to reduce 0GH and energy emissions: * Examples of companies, iit corpor9t 1990 levels by 2010. - BP Amoco: redtuce gr -nhouse gas emission! to 10% below levels by 2002. - Shell: reduce greenho se gas eisions toIO% below 1990 u eby 20% pruiof production by 2005. - Dow:, reduce energy levels by 2010, and use - DuPont: reduce gre ouegseisos65%/below 1990 renewable resources in I fisgoa energy use by the same year. use 25% below 1997 levels by 2007, - United TccbnologiC:educ ee. and water based on sales-weighted mssions. 201 0. emissions Io0% below '95 levels by -World Semiconductor ouncil: rediuce PlC NGOs. Trade Asso0ciations and Roads (eg.. Greening Earth SocietyCooler Several consurrcYrand pcicy NGOs they perceive as are concerned about the use ofwhai a Coalition, Global Climat Coalition policy decisions. Genrtemly, they are inconclusive climate sci ice as a ba s for making gases and/or U.S. ratification of Kyoto, opposed to regulation of crenhouse sientific findings such as those of the * Environmenetal groups bt ieve that international Change (IPCC) demand a concerted intergovernmeniftal Panel )n Climat
  5. 5. ./l JUNSEP.20.20e13;L 3:29PMN.15 GreenPeacc# talwithgte respnseto ous-gS ¶issiOfls. These groups (including favor KyatO ratificationl and the Sierran Club dandit World e rc nt~t)generally geenhouse gane5 of Siecea odm deprograms to regulato he implementation o lmt~htCsinea ofcenin A numer talions prorat ongoing assessmnent arganlizations do not These negotiatiOns. wel aube U.S enaeetnitrclI? the use of energy neesall a s Upportn ra intern othKyoPrtocob. but rather ies.Suc alternative trenewable sources and teficint echnaonlog enrg conservation, Globa ClimateCaeanthiteniolCime groups include the Pew etron Change partnership. cmpie State and Lqcal Gove~rumnef aspnstrdue greenhouse gasemsinnvtoe. a a To date, thirty-fivChave it haveom states t~iatcd state-ae cinpast euegenos TWenry-SiX States reductions. For example. NJ Someistates arsing rn; ket-based mrechanirms to achieve naGH radingsfr e teu has established a 3.5% s1 ftwide reducongaadiswrn o e OR. and MIA have carbon Offset rqieet agreeflent with The Net] erlands; need. poe o %of its total electricity power plants; PA is Purc aging green Reli~iOU-S -CoqMAAuft Conference, The Naional Rligious eIhi frthe Environmenft (U.S. Catholic a olto National Council of Cl isof CrSt, Evangelical EnvirnetlNtok religious and believes that it is every citizen's moral on Environment and Je shLife) to -protectthc health and habitat of the responsibility to be stew ds of God'; creation and h ceceo lmt global warming. global environmlent aga tthe threa, s of jfCCoclae Stewardship questionsth The Interfaith Council fbEnvironmen~tal than global Warming. adpoverty are mate critical change and believes that ickness initiatives in at least Is States to The Interfaith Global W2 jug Campaign has local reduce climate change'i pacts, whieb oversee more than $100 billion The Interfaith Center on orporate- Responsibibity, in energy efficiency to profitably reduce in pension funds, Urges C ipOratiOns to invest global warming emissio- program. joinied EPA's voluntary Energy Star *Over 470 congregations I ve against the Kyoto Protocol. The * Several labor organizatio is have tae positions treaty because of concernis related to AFL-CIO adopted a reso ition in Is997 opposing this Within the AFL-CIO. its econoUCimptca ack of developing country participation,. ID January, the the UnitedMieWr have beer~ the most active organization. the Kyoto ors adopted a resolution opposing international Brotherhoo of Teams of a comprehensive energy strategy to Protocol, calling instead 'or the dev -lopflint ensure an adequate U.S.ney supply.
  6. 6. NO. 175 H.fC/fl 20 . 20 0 1i 3: 29fl jULN.SEp. Recent Proposed Legislation Harkn 3260Conservaton ecurity Act f200 Smith ,Johnson,KfertY. Dasehie, Leahy) -R. ~ 55 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~(Blacci, Berry. Boehiert, Clayton, ooksey, Edwards, Parr, Hill, Hooley, Kind, 'etue ersonO Pom~'y, hue 3Bereter. Bishop, B5oswSel. Condit, elahunt, Emerson, utknecht, Hinchey. Kaptur, Oberstar, A wyq-~ IPhel sL.Sawor, V o amen the cals I ~security~ Act Of 1985 to establish the conserainscrt
  7. 7. NO. 175 P. blilo JIJN-SEP. 20. 2002:'. 3:29PM ome"sio Corb, 10,20 Of2000 IA:t2ooo Food S enroll land seques )n progr2rn a P grant rental p jent may not exceed $20 per acre and the SecretarY WaY mainta'm million acres Of I n The United States in a carbon seque&ation prograrn at anY 1 time 106 the calend TA-gricultural Best 5 14,1 Grams, Act and T 0 als: ame N AgricUlt to improve and e use,al and resear into best pra AgricUltw 11 Best es Research: $5 million Rernote S rising T $5 million TOTAL P-12