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  • However, the greatest disappointment in the movement has been the slow response to the actual use of this open material, particularly use that could benefit national systems of higher education in developing countries or under-resourced institutions. This presentation will suggest reasons for this slow uptake, offers observations about the underlying dynamics in the wide-scale and impactful use of OCW, and proposes the systematic development of “learning ecosystems”— infrastructures designed to leverage OCW.There are some initiatives that specifically aim OCW at institutional use. One is the National Repository of Online Courses (NROC), a growing library of high-quality online course content for students and faculty in higher education, high school and Advanced Placement. This non-profit project, supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, is an Open Educational Resource (OER) and facilitates collaboration among a community of content developers to serve students and teachers worldwide. Courses in the NROC library are contributed by developers from leading academic institutions across the United States. All courses are assessed to ensure they meet high standards of scholarship, instructional value, and presentational impact. NROC works with scholars and contributes resources to improve course quality and to provide ongoing maintenance. NROC courses are designed to cover the breadth and depth of topics based on generally accepted national curricula and can also be customized within a course management system. NROC content is distributed free-of-charge to students and teachers at public websites including HippoCampus. Institutions wishing to use NROC content are invited to join a fee-based membership organization, the NROC Network. Organizations serving disadvantaged students can become members of the NROC Network at no cost.
  • It is through these institutional sponsored initiatives that users motivated to gain access to the material.-Information supplied by NROC.
  • A few institutions have directly planned to use OCW to develop courses, including our host today.Knowledge Hub (KHUB) is a public, multilingual hub that allows you to discover selected Open Educational Resources (OERs) using metadata built by experts, faceted searching and social networking tools to help teachers and students find the best resources for their educational needs.This project was presented and approved in the GULF (Global Universities Leaders Forum) in DAVOS in January 2008 by the President of the Tecnológico de Monterrey University, Dr. Rafael Rangel Sostmann. Knowledge Hub (KHUB) has been developed by the Tecnológico de Monterrey University with the objective to create a Public Multilingual Hub to index the Open educational Resources (OER) from the Universities members of the OCWC and other Open and free Courseware instances.Knowledge Hub (KHUB) is an idea conceived by the necessity to ease the search of materials that have a potential effectiveness in teaching and learning. The professors and members participating in KHUB have a framework of evaluation criteria according their expertise on their major disciplines. The criteria to index a resource in KHUB is principally based on: Quality of Content Potential Effectiveness as a Teaching and Learning Tool Ease and Free Use
  • LARRY COOPERMAN:And several projects have clearly targeted institutions as users by creating utilities and services directed at helping institutions use OER or OCW such as our friends at Rice University through Connexions.Connexions is an environment for collaboratively developing, freely sharing, and rapidly publishing scholarly content on the Web. Our Content Commons contains educational materials for everyone — from children to college students to professionals — organized in small modules that are easily connected into larger collections or courses. All content is free to use and reuse under the Creative Commons"attribution" license. Connexions currently has 484 collections with over 9,600 modules.
  • LARRY COOPERMAN:But these institutionally-directed activities have so far been relatively small. What we call “OCW-in” really has not “lifted off.”At least some reasons for this slow up-take are clear. First, we know that to be effective, OCW, usually produced for one audience (say, MIT undergraduates) must be “localized” and sometimes translated for another audience (say, undergraduates in an Ethiopian university). This translation and localization requires a local capacity, (including technology, trained human resources, and funding) capable of identifying and transforming OCW for local use. Second, this local capacity must be linked to the institutional infrastructure to satisfy the needs of the local audience, utilizing local delivery systems and resources to support the expanded use of the material. It is clear that the simple existence of free and open material is necessary but not sufficient for wide scale adoption and use.
  • Even the expanded use of OCW by institutions is not the outer limit of the promise of OCW. Right from the beginning of the OCW movement has been the hope that OCW could begin to address some of the huge shortfalls in education around the world.
  • The need around the world for expanded education is manifest but in no way can conventional, traditionally delivered higher education meet the demand.Enrollments in developing countries are burgeoning with over 140 million postsecondary students globally. For example, China and India have doubled enrollments over the past 10 years. China has the largest higher education system in the world, with over 25 million students. But there are many developing countries with APRs less than 10% and have a big hill to climb. Malaysia plans to raise its APR of 39% to 50% by 2010. The government of Trinidad and Tobago aims for an APR of 60% by 2015 (up from 11.9% in 2007). In India, where each 1% increase in APR means one million more students plans to go from 10% to 15% by 2012. -Change Magazine, March/April 2009
  • There is what Sir John Daniel calls the “iron triangle” of interrelated elements in which quality is inversely associated with access and cost. Technology at least offers a hope of breaking this relationship. -Change Magazine, March/April 2009
  • For developing countries, the only way this triangle will be broken is through some form of national policy embracing OCW.
  • In Vietnam the government has adopted an OCW strategy as central to gaining its goals.
  • What this leads to is the notion of creating a national learning ecosystem in which technology, communities, government, pedagogy (and pedagogical reform) and strategic financing combine to address the movement to mass higher education. We will call this integrated, national approach the “learning ecosystem.”
  • Building on the case of Vietnam and a brief examination of other developing countries, we see a number of critical elements that must come together for the learning ecosystem system to work.

    1. 1. Disruptive innovation— O Passado, Presente and Futuro da EducaçãoLivre<br />por<br />Larry cooperman<br />Director, UC Irvine OCW <br />CHAIR, Strategic Technology Committee<br />OpenCourseWare consortium<br />Apresentado à Associação Brasileira de Educação a Distância<br />
    2. 2. Universal Access to Higher Education<br />Is education a basic right?<br />Then why is so much of higher education behind password-protected walls?<br />
    3. 3. Universal Access to Higher Education<br />The innovation is not technological<br />Creative Commons licenses<br />Some rights reserved<br />Attribution<br />Commercial or non-commercial<br />Modifiable or not modifiable<br />License terms passed on when modified or not<br />
    4. 4. Universal Access to Higher Education<br />The innovation is one of social relations<br />The university has several core functions:<br />Research and innovation<br />Teaching<br />Credentialing of qualified students with degrees<br />Shared course materials and video lectures support the core mission of the university<br />
    5. 5. Universal Access to Higher Education<br />Open Educational Resources<br />Syllabi<br />Lecture notes<br />Slide presentations<br />Readings<br />Interactive Media<br />Video and Audio<br />
    6. 6. Universal Access<br />
    7. 7. Universal Access to Higher Education<br />OpenCourseWare<br />Same license types as OER<br />Collection of course materials<br />At UCI, we define an OCW as a set of course materials that, together, provide a learning path through a course’s subject<br />
    8. 8. Some OCW/OER Projects<br />National Repository of Online Courses<br />Connexions<br />KnowledgeHub<br />
    9. 9. NROC—Destinadoparauso no ensinomédio e fundamental<br />National Repository of online courses<br /><ul><li>Patrocinado pela Hewlett Foundation
    10. 10. O NROC é focado em assuntos de educação geral, como: álgebra, biologia, história dos EUA
    11. 11. Os cursos incluem apresentações, conjunto de problemas, tarefas e todo conteúdo necessário para o ensino</li></li></ul><li>Estatísticas de uso do NROC<br />Membros Associados e Licenças<br />
    12. 12. Desenvolvimento de cursos OCW<br />
    13. 13. Serviços que auxiliam no uso do OCW<br />
    14. 14. Uso do OCW<br /><ul><li>Para ser efetivo, os cursos do OCW precisam ser “localizados” e algumas vezes traduzidos para outros públicos
    15. 15. Tradução e localização requerem competências locais incluindo tecnologia, recursos humanos e financeiros
    16. 16. Esta competência local precisa estar conectada com a infraestrutura da instituição para satisfazer o público local
    17. 17. Sistemas e recursos suficientes para o uso atual e futuro destes materiais
    18. 18. Está claro que a simples existência de material livre é necessária, mas não suficiente para uso amplo</li></li></ul><li>Uso do OCW<br />Adesõesao OCW aindanãodecolaram<br />Perspectiva do Consumidor (Alunos/Docentes)<br />Diferentesformatosprejudicam o uso<br />É necessário um generalistaresponsávelpelabuscatrabalhandoemconjunto com o especialista<br />Necessidade de demonstrar ROI parainstitucionalizar o uso do OCW/OER (melhor, maisrápido, etc.)<br />
    19. 19. Uso do OCW<br /><ul><li>Potencial do OCW aindapoucoexplorado
    20. 20. Perspectiva da criação dos cursos
    21. 21. Poucaprodução demetadata parapesquisa
    22. 22. Desenvolvimento dos cursos no contexto do criador
    23. 23. Perspectiva da pesquisa (Sear
    24. 24. Crawlers (Google Advanced Search) don’t have mechanism for rankings
    25. 25. MuitoscursosofertadospeloMIT
    26. 26. A busca é baseadanosmetadados e RSS
    27. 27. Conhecimento de onde e comopesquisarainda é fundamental paraobterosresultadosesperadosnasbuscas</li></li></ul><li>Uso do OCW<br />Search solutions: the past<br />Active<br />RSS Feeds<br />Metadata<br />Search results through:<br />Keyword matches with metadata<br />Keyword matches with indexed documents<br />
    28. 28. Uso do OCW<br />Search solutions: the future<br />Unsupervised search<br />Documents are indexed for occurrences of words<br />Sentences are understood as triples<br />e.g. Obama met Lula.<br />Content and context is understood by discipline vocabularies<br />
    29. 29. Uso do OCW<br />Possible results?<br />University websites can be crawled for content and related documents can be automatically categorized and grouped together<br />The reuse of open assets and general discoverability of university assets for all sorts of purposes will be greatly enhanced<br />
    30. 30. A PróximaFronteira<br />Formação de Learning Ecosystems<br />
    31. 31. The Deficit in Higher Education<br />Explosão de Matrículas em países em desenvolvimento <br /><ul><li>China e Índia dobraram suas matrículas nos últimos 10 anos
    32. 32. Existem muitos países em desenvolvimento com APRs menores que 10%
    33. 33. Malásia planeja aumentar seu APR de 39% para 50% até 2010
    34. 34. Trinidad e Tobago aponta para um APR de 60% até 2015 (11.9% em 2007)
    35. 35. Na Índia, onde cada 1% de aumento no APR representa o acréscimo de um milhão de estudantes. O plano é aumentar de 10% para 15% até 2012</li></ul>APR – Average Participation Rates<br />
    36. 36. O Triângulo de Ferro<br />ACESSO<br />QUALIDADE<br />CUSTO<br />
    37. 37. A próximafronteira do OCW Políticasnacionais<br />Como superamos o Triângulo de Ferro?<br />Com a formação da políticas nacionais que englobem o OCW no nível institucional nos países em desenvolvimento<br />
    38. 38. Caso Vietnam<br />No Vietnam, o governo adotou o OCW como parte fundamental de sua estratégia para atingir seus objetivos no ensino superior <br />
    39. 39. Um novo conceito<br />The Learning Ecosystem<br />
    40. 40. The Learning EcosystemElementosCríticos<br />Patrocinador externo do OCW, disposto a ser flexível e respeitoso com a situação regional<br />Patrocinador interno do OCW, geralmente sancionado e/ou apoiado pelo governo<br />Relação ativa entre o patrocinador interno e os usuários potenciais<br /><ul><li>Geralmente representado na forma de consórcios regionais ou nacionais de instituições de ensino superior</li></li></ul><li>The Learning EcosystemElementosCríticos<br />O Desenvolvimento de pelo menos um centro de “localização”, tradução OCW e produção de material original<br /><ul><li>Tecnologia, pessoal treinado, lugar apropriado e equipamentos</li></ul>Um conjunto preliminar de projetos pilotos selecionados pela importância e habilidade de demonstrar um modelo prático para a região<br />
    41. 41. The Learning EcosystemCompetências<br />Competência Curricular<br />Análise de coerência e “gap analysis“ por especialistas<br /><ul><li>Integração de materiais de várias origens e contextos</li></ul>Uso da metodologia de design instrucional<br />Competência Técnica<br />Possibilidade de importar/exportar cursos<br />Manipular e transferir formatos comuns<br />
    42. 42. The Learning EcosystemCompetências<br />Competência de regionalização do conteúdo<br />Adaptar ao país/região/idioma<br /><ul><li>Estilo de ensino</li></ul>Tradução<br />Competência de produção de Cursos Online<br />Adaptar o conteúdo ao ambiente; e<br />Focar nas necessidades do aluno Online<br /><ul><li>Entender o aprendizado social como complemento ao conteúdo</li></li></ul><li>Formal and Informal LearningUniversity Structure<br />
    43. 43. Formal and Informal LearningThe Global Study Hall<br />
    44. 44. Formal and Informal LearningA New Educational Landscape<br />Aula<br />Mundial<br />Atualização<br />do Conteúdo<br />Atualização<br />do Conteúdo<br />
    45. 45. Larry Cooperman<br />Director, OpenCourseWare <br />Universidade de California, Irvine<br />ljcooper@uci.edu<br />http://ocw.uci.edu<br />