Marketing Chapter 21

17 de Nov de 2009
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Marketing Chapter 21

• 1. Chapter 21: “Developing and Applying a Pricing Strategy ” Joel R. Evans & Barry Berman Marketing, 10e: Marketing in the 21st Century
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• 3. A Framework for Developing and Applying a Pricing Strategy Consumers Costs Government Channel Members Competition Feedback Objectives Broad Price Policy Pricing Strategy Implementation of Pricing Strategy Price Adjustments Factors Affecting Price Decisions
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• 9. Alternative Ways of Developing a Pricing Strategy Cost-Based Pricing Compare selling price with competitors Begin with costs and work towards selling price Begin with selling price and work to costs Demand-Based Pricing Competition-Based Pricing Cost Factors Demand Factors Pricing Strategy Competitive Factors Combination Pricing Above the Market Below the Market At the Market
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• 12. Cost-Plus Pricing Price = Total fixed costs + Total variable costs + Projected profit Units produced Prices are set by adding a pre-determined profit to costs. It is the simplest form of cost-based pricing .
• 13. Markup Pricing A firm sets prices by computing the per-unit costs of producing (buying) goods and/or services and then determining the markup percentages needed to cover selling costs and profit. It is most commonly used by wholesalers and retailers. Price = Product cost (100 – Markup percent)/100 Some firms use a variable markup policy , whereby separate categories of goods and services receive different percentage markups.
• 14. Traditional Break-Even Analysis Total fixed costs Price - Variable costs (per unit) Break-even point (units) Break-even point (sales dollars) = These formulas are derived from the equation: Price X Quantity = Total fixed costs + (Variable costs per unit X Quantity) = Total fixed costs Price - Variable costs (per unit) Price
• 15. Break-Even Analysis Can Be Adjusted to Take into Account the Profit Sought Total fixed costs + Projected Profit Price - Variable costs (per unit) Break-even point (units) Break-even point (sales dollars) = = Total fixed costs + Projected Profit Price - Variable costs (per unit) Price
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• 21. Setting a Competition-Based Price Firm’s Price? Above Market Selling Price At the Market Selling Price Below the Market Selling Price
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• 23. Implementing Pricing Strategies (2) Price bundling Price lining Multiple-unit pricing Leader pricing Purchase terms Geographic pricing
• 24. Prestige Pricing Price Quantity (Units) Q1 \$40 Q2 \$60 Q3 \$90 Range of Acceptable Prices Consumers’ Price Ceiling Consumers’ Price Floor
• 25. Price Bundling for a Bookcase A consumer can buy a bookcase and have it delivered, assembled, and stained for \$489, or buy the bookcase for \$379 and do all or or some of the other functions. The total for unbundled price is \$529 . Bundled Pricing Bookcase—\$489 Includes delivery, assembly, staining Unbundled Pricing Bookcase —\$379 Delivery — \$50 Assembly — \$35 Staining — \$65
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